Food group and nutrient intakes at baseline in the Multiple Risk Factor Intervention Trial
Tillotson, J.L.; Bartsch, G.E.; Gorder, D.; Grandits, G.A.; Stamler, J.
American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 65(1 Suppl): 228s-257s
ISSN/ISBN: 0002-9165 PMID: 8988940 DOI: 10.1093/ajcn/65.1.228s
This chapter relates food and nutrient intakes at baseline to other facets of reported dietary behavior, major risk factors, and sociodemographic characteristics of men in the Multiple Risk Factor Intervention Trial. Intakes of total fat (38.4% of energy), saturated fatty acids (14.2%), and dietary cholesterol (492 mg/d) were similar to amounts seen in the first and second National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys in the 1970s and were generally lower than findings from studies in the 1960s. There were inverse relations between total serum cholesterol and intakes of total fat, saturated and monounsaturated fatty acids, and dietary cholesterol. These paradoxical associations were largely attributable to findings in the 21% of men who reported following a special diet, indicating that use of such a diet increases with severity of hypercholesterolemia. Fat intake was directly related to number of meals per week eaten away from home, and to cigarette smoking. Patterns of food and nutrient intake were similar for men stratified by baseline blood pressure and antihypertensive treatment. Intake of total energy and percentages from various dietary fats decreased with age, as did use of sucrose and caffeine. White men consumed more dairy products than did other ethnic groups, whereas black men consumed more eggs, sugars, and sweets. Asians had the highest intake of cereal foods. Those with more education ate less high-fat meat products, more fruit, and more polyunsaturated oils, but also more high-fat dairy products and less breads and cereals; they also drank more alcohol.