Hemodynamic and cardiac effects of the selective T-type and L-type calcium channel blocking agent mibefradil in patients with varying degrees of left ventricular systolic dysfunction

Rousseau, M.F.; Hayashida, W.; Van Eyll, C.; Hess, O.M.; Benedict, C.R.; Ahn, S.; Chapelle, F.; Kobrin, I.; Pouleur, H.

Journal of the American College of Cardiology 28(4): 972-979


ISSN/ISBN: 0735-1097
PMID: 8837576
DOI: 10.1016/s0735-1097(96)00261-6
Accession: 008762433

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Objectives. This study sought to assess the hemodynamic and cardiac effects of two dose levels of mibefradil in patients with varying degrees of ischemic left ventricular dysfunction. Background. Mibefradil is a new, selective T-type and L-type calcium channel blocking agent. Because L-type channel blockade may depress myocardial performance, an invasive hemodynamic study was performed to assess the safety of this agent. Methods. We performed an open label study, examining the effects of two intravenous doses of mibefradil, selected to produce plasma levels comparable to those measured after oral administration of 50 mg (dose 1: 400 ng/ml) or 100 mg (dose 2:800 ng/ml) of the drug. Variables studied included the indexes of left ventricular function and neurohormone levels. Patients were stratified according to ejection fraction (EF) ( gtoreq 40%, n = 26; lt 40%, n = 24) and the presence (n = 15) or absence (n = 35) of heart failure. Results. In patients with preserved systolic function, dose 1 had no clinically significant hemodynamic effects, but dose 2 decrease mean aortic pressure and systemic vascular resistance (-8.5 mm Hg, -12%, both p lt 0.01) and also reduced end-systolic stress and volume, thus improving EF (52% to 58%, p lt 0.01). Heart rate tended to decrease. In patients with depressed EF, heart rate decreased significantly with both doses. The effects of dose 1 mimicked those observed after dose 2 in patients with preserved EF. Dose 2 (plasma levels 1,052 +- 284 ng/ml) still decreased left ventricular systolic wall stress and improved EF (24.0% to 28.5%, p lt 0.05) but also significantly depressed the maximal first derivative of left ventricular pressure. Examination of individual pressure-volume loops in two patients with heart failure showed a clear rightward shift of the loop despite a decrease in systolic pressure, suggesting negative inotropy. Neurohormone levels were unchanged at both dose levels and in all subgroups. Conclusions. Intravenous mibefradil was well tolerated and produced an overall favorable cardiovascular response. However, high plasma concentrations might produce myocardial depression in patients with heart failure, and caution should be exerted in this setting.