Human T cells recovered from human/Balb radiation chimeras are hypersensitive to human immunodeficiency virus type 1 infection
Shapira-Nahor, O.; Marcus, H.; Segall, H.; Lubin, I.; Slavin, S.; Panet, A.; Reisner, Y.
Journal of Virology 71(6): 4495-4501
ISSN/ISBN: 0022-538X PMID: 9151841 Accession: 008786027
Replication of human immunodeficiency virus type I (HIV-1) is regulated by virus-encoded regulatory proteins, as well as by a variety of cellular factors. Productive infection of human T lymphocytes by HIV-1 is dependent upon the activation status of the target cells. In general, short-term mitogenic stimulation of CD4 T cells is used to enhance infection of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) in vitro. Recently, we demonstrated that adoptive transfer of human PBMC into lethally irradiated BALB/c mice, radioprotected with severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) mouse bone marrow, leads to marked T-cell activation and proliferation. In the present study, we investigated the effect of such xenoactivation of human T cells on their susceptibility to HIV-1 infection. Human cells that were recovered from human/Balb radiation chimeras supported efficient replication of laboratory strains of HIV-1, as well as of HIV-1 clinical isolates. The multiplicity of infection required to attain effective virus replication in the recovered xenoactivated human cells was 10- to 100-fold lower than that needed for infection of short- or long-term phytohemagglutinin (PHA) stimulated blasts or of various T-cell lines. Analysis of human cell surface activation markers has indicated that xenoactivation in the mouse, in contrast to in vitro stimulation with PHA, is associated with a marked downregulation of CD25 (interleukin 2 receptor). Our results demonstrate that human cells recovered from human/Balb radiation chimeras, which are hypersensitive to HIV-1 infection, differ from in vitro-stimulated cells in their activation status. Therefore, this system could be used to study host factors that participate in HIV-1 infection and replication in vitro and in vivo.