IL-1 and transforming growth factor-beta regulation of fibroblast-derived IL-11
Elias, J.A.; Zheng, T.; Whiting, N.L.; Trow, T.K.; Merrill, W.W.; Zitnik, R.; Ray, P.; Alderman, E.M.
Journal of Immunology 152(5): 2421-2429
ISSN/ISBN: 0022-1767 PMID: 8133053 Accession: 008799519
IL-11 and IL-6 are fibroblast-derived cytokines with overlapping biologic properties. To determine whether IL-11 and IL-6 are similarly regulated, we characterized the effects of rIL-1 and TGF-beta (beta-1 and beta-2) on human lung fibroblast IL-11 production and compared this regulation with that of IL-6. Unstimulated fibroblasts did not produce significant amounts of IL-11, whereas rIL-1-alpha and TGF-beta were dose-dependent stimulators of IL-11 protein production, mRNA accumulation, and gene transcription. rIL-1-alpha and TGF-beta also interacted in a synergistic fashion to further increase IL-11 protein production and mRNA accumulation. The effects of rIL-1 and TGF-beta individually were not altered by the cyclic nucleotide-dependent protein kinase inhibitor HA1004, protein kinase C (PKC) inhibition with staurosporine, or chronic phorbol ester preincubation, or the calmodulin antagonists W7 and TFP. The effects of rIL-1-alpha and TGF-beta in combination were also unaltered by HA1004, staurosporine, and chronic phorbol ester exposure. A23187, however, did induce IL-11 mRNA accumulation and W7 and TFP did reverse the synergistic stimulation caused by rIL-1 and TGF-beta in combination. In contrast with the regulation of IL-11, TGF-beta did not effectively stimulate IL-6 mRNA accumulation, rIL-1-alpha was a more potent stimulator of IL-6 than IL-11 production, and rIL-1-induced IL-6 mRNA accumulation was augmented by W7 and TFP. These studies demonstrate that: 1) rIL-1 , TGF-beta, and agents that increase intracellular calcium stimulate lung fibroblast IL-11; 2) the IL-11 stimulatory effects of rIL-1 and TGF-beta are, at least partially, transcriptionally mediated and are the result of signal transduction pathways that are largely PKC, cyclic nucleotide, and calmodulin independent; and 3) rIL-1 and TGF-beta interact in a synergistic fashion to further increase fibroblast IL-11 production and that this synergy is mediated by a largely PKC- and cyclic nucleotide-independent and calmodulin-dependent activation pathway. Importantly, they also demonstrate that rIL-1 and TGF-beta stimulate lung fibroblast IL-6 and IL-11 production via distinct and differentially regulatable activation pathways.