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Identification of spike protein residues of murine coronavirus responsible for receptor-binding activity by use of soluble receptor-resistant mutants



Identification of spike protein residues of murine coronavirus responsible for receptor-binding activity by use of soluble receptor-resistant mutants



Journal of Virology 71(12): 9024-9031



We previously demonstrated by site-directed mutagenesis analysis that the amino acid residues at positions 62 and 214 to 216 in the N-terminal region of mouse hepatitis virus (MHV) spike (S) protein are important for receptor-binding activity (H. Suzuki and F. Taguchi, J. Virol. 70:2632-2636, 1996). To further identify the residues responsible for the activity, we isolated the mutant viruses that were not neutralized with the soluble form of MHV receptor proteins, since such mutants were expected to have mutations in amino acids responsible for receptor-binding activity. Five soluble-receptor-resistant (srr) mutants isolated had mutations in a single amino acid at three different positions: one was at position 65 (Leu to His) (srr11) in the S1 subunit and three were at position 1114 (Leu to Phe) (srr3, srr4, and srr7) and one was at position 1163 (Cys to Phe) (srr18) in the S2 subunit. The receptor-binding activity examined by a virus overlay protein blot assay and by a coimmunoprecipitation assay showed that srr11 S protein had extremely reduced binding activity, while the srr7 and srr18 proteins had binding activity similar to that of wild-type cl-2 protein. However, when cell surface receptors were used for the binding assay, all srr mutants showed activity similar to that of the wild type or only slightly reduced activity. These results, together with our previous observations, suggest that amino acids located at positions 62 to 65 of S1, a region conserved among the MHV strains examined, are important for receptor-binding activity. We also discuss the mechanism by which srr mutants with a mutation in S2 showed high resistance to neutralization by a soluble receptor, despite their sufficient level of binding to soluble receptors.

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Accession: 008810321

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PMID: 9371559


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