In vitro activities of levofloxacin used alone and in combination with first- and second-line antituberculous drugs against Mycobacterium tuberculosis

Rastogi, N.; Goh, K.S.; Bryskier, A.; Devallois, A.

Antimicrobial Agents and ChemoTherapy 40(7): 1610-1616

1996


ISSN/ISBN: 0066-4804
PMID: 8807049
DOI: 10.1128/aac.40.7.1610
Accession: 008835065

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Abstract
By using the radiometric BACTEC 460-TB methodology, the inhibitory and bactericidal activity of the optically active L-isomer of ofloxacin (levofloxacin) was compared with those of the D-isomer and the commercially available mixture containing equal amounts of DL-isomers (ofloxacin) against the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (type strain H37Rv, a panel of drug-susceptible and -resistant clinical isolates including multidrug-resistant isolates of M. tuberculosis, as well as M. africanum, M. bovis, and M. bovis BCG). Levofloxacin MICs (range 0.50 to 0.75 microgram/ml) were about 1 dilution lower than those of ofloxacin (MIC range, 0.75 to 1.00 microgram/ml) and 5 to 6 dilutions lower than those of the D-isomer (MIC range, 32 to 60 micrograms/ml). The MICs of levofloxacin, ofloxacin, and D-ofloxacin at which 90% of the strains are inhibited were 0.50, 1.00, and 64 micrograms/ml, respectively. The multidrug-resistant M. tuberculosis strains resistant to first-line drugs were as susceptible to quinolones as the wild-type drug-susceptible isolates. Levofloxacin at 0.5 microgram/ml showed bactericidal activity comparable to the activities of 1.0 microgram of ofloxacin per ml and 64 micrograms of D-ofloxacin per ml, with MBCs within the range of 0.5 to 2.0 micrograms/ml, compared with MBCs of 0.75 to 4.0 micrograms of ofloxacin per ml for M. tuberculosis, M. africanum, M. bovis BCG. Combination testing of sub-MICs of levolofoxacin with other first-line (isoniazid, rifampin, and ethambutol) and second-line (amikacin and clofazimine) antituberculous drugs was evaluated with various two-, three-, and four-drug combinations; enhanced drug activity was observed in 8 of 25, 12 of 20, and 8 of 15 tests, respectively, indicating that levofloxacin acts in synergy with other antituberculous drugs.