Increased human immunodeficiency virus type 1 replication in human peripheral blood mononuclear cells induced by ethanol: potential immunopathogenic mechanisms
Bagasra, O.; Bachman, S.E.; Jew, L.; Tawadros, R.; Cater, J.; Boden, G.; Ryan, I.; Pomerantz, R.J.
Journal of Infectious Diseases 173(3): 550-558
ISSN/ISBN: 0022-1899 PMID: 8627016 DOI: 10.1093/infdis/173.3.550
Previous studies have shown that alcohol ingestion significantly increases human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) replication in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) isolated and infected with HIV-1 in vitro. Whether the increased replication of HIV-1 observed after alcohol ingestion was due to unknown factors released from the gastrointestinal tract during alcohol ingestion or to certain metabolites produced by intestinal flora that degraded alcohol was investigated. In addition, cellular mechanisms involved in the increased replication of HIV-1 after alcohol exposure were evaluated. Twelve healthy HIV-1-seronegative subjects abstained from alcoholic beverages for gtoreq 10 days. Nine were infused with 500 mg/kg ethanol (7.5% at 20 mL/kg/h) in saline, whereas 3 were infused with saline alone. Compared with saline-infused subjects, ethanol-infused subjects' PBMC exhibited significantly increased replication of HIV-1 when infected in vitro, which was associated with increased inhibition of CD8+ T lymphocytes' function by alcohol.