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Increased toxicity of iron-amended copper-containing bactericides to the walnut blight pathogens Xanthomonas campestris pv. juglandis



Increased toxicity of iron-amended copper-containing bactericides to the walnut blight pathogens Xanthomonas campestris pv. juglandis



Phytopathology 83(12): 1460-1465



The addition of iron to fixed copper compounds enhanced the toxicity of these materials to the walnut blight bacterium Xanthomonas campestris pv. juglandis by several mechanisms. Iron altered the physiology of the bacterium, causing it to be more sensitive to cupric ions. In the presence of iron, less free copper ions were needed to inhibit the growth of bacteria. The addition of soluble iron salts to fixed copper compounds also reduced pH and increased the amount of free copper ions; addition of iron caused the release of more free copper ions in suspensions of Kocide 101 (77% Cu(OH)-2) than did hydrochloric acid at the same pH. The spraying of walnut leaves with Kocide 101 amended with iron salts significantly increased the availability of free copper ions on leaf surfaces compared to the bactericide alone. Cells of copper-sensitive strains of X. c. juglandis did not survive on leaf surfaces treated with Kocide 101, whereas more than 25% of the cells of copper-resistant strains survived. The addition of iron (50 mu-g/ml) in the form of FeCl-3 cntdot 6H-2O to Kocide 101 increased the concentrations of free copper ions by more than 25-fold and eliminated copper-resistant strains on leaf surfaces. In field trials, combinations of Kocide 101 or Champion (77% CU(OH)-2) with iron significantly reduced the incidence of bud infestation and blighted leaflets compared to nonamended treatments.

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