Influence of joint interactional effects on the coordination of planar two-joint arm movements
Virji-Babul, N.; Cooke, J.D.
Experimental Brain Research 103(3): 451-459
ISSN/ISBN: 0014-4819 PMID: 7789451 DOI: 10.1007/bf00241504
We have examined EMG-movement relations in two-joint planar arm movements to determine the influence of interactional torques on movement coordination. Explicitly defined combinations of elbow movements (ranging from 20 to 70 degree ) and wrist movements (ranging from 20 to 40 degree ) were performed during a visual, step-tracking task in which subjects were specifically required to attend to the initial and final angles at each joint. In all conditions the wrist and elbow rotated in the same direction, that is, flexion-flexion or extension-extension. Elbow movement kinematics were only slightly influenced by motion about the wrist. In contrast, the trajectory of the wrist movement was significantly influenced by uncompensated reaction torques resulting from movement about the elbow joint. At any given wrist amplitude, wrist movement duration increased and peak velocity decreased as elbow amplitude increased. In addition, as elbow amplitude increased, wrist movement onset was progressively delayed relative to this elbow movement. Surprisingly, the changes between joint movement onsets were not accompanied by corresponding changes between agonist EMG onsets at the elbow and wrist joints. The mean difference in onset times between elbow and wrist agonists (22-30 ms) remained unchanged across conditions. In addition, a basic pattern of muscle activation that scaled with movement amplitude was observed at each joint. Phasic agonist activity at the wrist and elbow joints remained remarkably similar across conditions and thus the changes in joint movement onset could not be attributed to changes in the motor commands. Rather, the calculated torques from the averaged data showed that the difference in timing of joint movement onsets was influenced by joint interactional torques. These findings suggest that during simple two-joint planar movements of the elbow and the wrist joint, the central nervous system does not alter the basic motor commands at each joint and as a result the actual trajectory of each joint is determined by interactional torques.