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Interleukin 1 induces expression of the human immunodeficiency virus alone and in synergy with interleukin 6 in chronically infected U1 cells: inhibition of inductive effects by the interleukin 1 receptor antagonist



Interleukin 1 induces expression of the human immunodeficiency virus alone and in synergy with interleukin 6 in chronically infected U1 cells: inhibition of inductive effects by the interleukin 1 receptor antagonist



Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 91(1): 108-112



In the present study we have observed that interleukin (IL) 1 alpha or IL-1 beta directly induced expression of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) in the latently infected human promonocytic cell line U1. In addition, IL-1 synergized with IL-6, but not with tumor necrosis factor, in the upregulation of virus expression in U1 cells as measured by accumulation of steady-state mRNAs and production of reverse transcriptase activity. The HIV inductive effect of IL-1 was blocked by transforming growth factor beta, anti-IL-1 antibodies, or monoclonal antibodies directed to the type 1, but not to the type 2, cell surface receptor for IL-1; the latter actually caused enhancement of the IL-1-mediated effect. Unlike tumor necrosis factor alpha, IL-1 either alone or in combination with IL-6 did not induce activation of the transcription activating factor NF-kappa B above the constitutive levels of unstimulated U1 cells. Finally, the IL-1 receptor antagonist effectively blocked IL-1-mediated direct and synergistic inductive effects on virus production. Thus, IL-1 may be an important mediator of HIV expression, and blocking of IL-1 expression and/or its effects may have a potential therapeutic role in the inhibition of HIV expression in infected individuals.

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Accession: 008897600

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PMID: 7506410

DOI: 10.2307/2363748


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