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Markers of axonal injury in post mortem human brain

Markers of axonal injury in post mortem human brain

Acta Neuropathologica 88(5): 433-439

b-Amyloid precursor protein (beta-APP) can be detected immunocytochemically at sites of axonal injury in the brain, and has recently been found to be a useful marker for injured axons in patients who survived for only 3 h after head trauma. It is transported by fast axonal transport and is thought to accumulate in detectable levels where the cytoskeleton breaks down. If this theory is correct. other substances should accumulate here in the same way, so we have used antibodies to other neuronal proteins to compare their efficacy as markers of axonal injury. SNAP-25. chromogranin A and cathepsin D also marked injured axons at all survival times studied (2.5 h-2 weeks), although they were not as sensitive or specific as PAPP Immunolabeling for the 68-kDa neurofilament subunit (NF68) was present in most uninjured axons, and allowed axonal swellings to be seen in some cases. Synaptophysin, GAP-43, ubiquitin or tau did not label any normal or injured axons in this study. We, therefore, suggest that PAPP should be the immunocytochemical marker of choice for the detection of injured axons. This study also showed that microwave antigen retrieval significantly enhances the immunoreactivity of SNAP-25, chromogranin A, synaptophysin. GAP-43, ubiquitin and tau, in addition to that of beta-APP, in formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissue. and reveals NF68 a city where it was not previously detectable.

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Accession: 008993327

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PMID: 7847072

DOI: 10.1007/bf00389495

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