Mechanism of formation of the thioether conjugate of the bladder carcinogen 2-amino-4- (5-nitro-2-furyl) -thiazole (ANFT)

Lakshmi, V.M.; Zenser, T.V.; Sohani, S.; Davis, B.B.

Carcinogenesis 13(11): 2087-2093


ISSN/ISBN: 0143-3334
PMID: 1423880
DOI: 10.1093/carcin/13.11.2087
Accession: 009002477

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The formation of thioether conjugates is an important pathway for inactivation of certain carcinogens. This study assessed the mechanism by which the bladder carcinogen 2-amino-4-(5-nitro-2-furyl)-thiazole (ANFT) forms a glutathione conjugate (ANFT-SG). Peroxidatic metabolism of ANFT, in the presence of glutathione, results in ANFT-SG formation. Both prostaglandin H synthase and horseradish peroxidase can catalyze this reaction. Metabolism of the reducing co-substrates ANFT, phenol, and aminopyrine elicit increases in oxidized glutathione (GSSG). ANFT-SG formation is potentiated by phenol and aminopyrine. tert-Nitrosobutane (tNB), a thiyl radical trap, prevented increases in both GSSG and ANFT-SG. increasing concentrations of ANFT elicited corresponding increases in both GSSG and ANFT-SG. Peroxidatic metabolism of ANFT in the presence of glutathione, but not in the absence of glutathione, resulted in oxygen uptake. The formation of GSSG and oxygen uptake are consistent with the presence of thiyl radicals during ANFT metabolism. 5,5-Dimethyl-1-pyrroline N-oxide, a thiyl radical trap, was not as effective as tNB in inhibiting the formation of ANFT-SG and GSSG. Ascorbic acid, a reducing co-substrate and antioxidant, was very effective in preventing ANFT-SG and GSSG formation, while the strong nucleophile methione was ineffective. To clarify effects of different test agents, their effects on aminopyrine cation radical formation were assessed. Results are consistent with ANFT reacting with thiyl radicals to form ANFT-SG. ANFT appears to be a thiyl radical trap. Peroxidatic metabolism of ANFT probably results in the formation of a cation radical rather than a carbon-centered radical.