Metabolic and renal effects of Laevo-carnitine and propionyl-carnitine in rats with subtotal nephrectomy
Palomba, D.; Pes, G.M.; Demontis, M.P.; Varoni, M.V.; Deiana, L.; Anania, V.
Pharmacological Research 34(3-4): 161-165
ISSN/ISBN: 1043-6618 PMID: 9051710 DOI: 10.1006/phrs.1996.0083
The renal and metabolic effects of chronic carnitine administration were evaluated in the early stages of experimentally-induced renal failure. Laevo-carnitine (n = 5), Propionyl-carnitine (n = 5) both at 200 mg kg-1 of body weight, or vehicle (physiological saline solution, 0.4 ml kg-1 body weight, n = 5) were administered daily for 3 days prior to 2/3 nephrectomy and for 25 days thereafter, by intraperitoneal route. At the end of the experiment, no significant differences were found in systolic blood pressure and heart rate among groups. During the 25 days after nephrectomy, body weight increased by 71 +/- 13 g in the control group and by 50 +/- 26 g and 42 +/- 9 g in Laevo-carnitine and Propionyl-carnitine groups, respectively (P < 0.05 vs control for both comparisons). Urinary sodium excretion was increased in carnitine-treated rats (Laevo-carnitine: from 1.03 +/- 0.3 to 1.36 +/- 0.3 mEq day-1, Propionyl-carnitine: from 1.2 +/- 0.2 to 1.66 +/- 0.2 mEq day-1, P < 0.05 for both comparisons), but not in those given vehicle. Twenty-five days after nephrectomy, plasma creatinine was lower in carnitine-treated rats (Laevo-carnitine: 0.98 +/- 0.12 mg dl-1, Propionyl-carnitine: 1.06 +/- 0.15, vehicle: 1.52 +/- 0.09, P < 0.05 vs control for both comparisons). Plasma triglycerides and VLDL were decreased by nephrectomy and this effect was prevented by carnitine treatment. The data indicate that the carnitine blunts the increase in plasma creatinine that occurs early after partial nephrectomy and normalizes the plasma lipoprotein pattern. Thus, carnitine might protect against the development of renal failure in this experimental model.