Nasal absorption in the rat. III. Effect of lysophospholipids on insulin absorption and nasal histology
Chandler, S.G.; Thomas, N.W.; Illum, L.
Pharmaceutical Research 11(11): 1623-1630
ISSN/ISBN: 0724-8741 PMID: 7870681 DOI: 10.1023/a:1018970006935
The intranasal absorption enhancing and histological effects of a range of lysophospholipids has been investigated in the rat. Blood glucose levels fell rapidly following the administration of insulin (8 IU/kg) in combination with lysophosphatidylcholines (LPC; 0.625% w/v) which had ten or more carbon groups in their fatty acid chain. The effect of the LPC-caproyl (C6) was comparable to that of an unenhanced insulin formulation; the enhancing effect of LPC-decanoyl (C10) was similar to that of an LPC-palmitoyl/stearoyl (C16/C18) for similar concentrations. The effect of LPC-decanoyl was reduced with concentration but was still significant at 0.2% w/v (5mM). Lysophosphatidylglycerol (LPG) had a marked insulin absorption enhancing effect even at 0.0625% w/v. The histological effects of LPC-caproyl were similar to those of an unenhanced insulin formulation, while co-administration of LPC-decanoyl resulted in evidence of epithelial interaction. LPG (0.5% w/v) resulted in similar histological changes as LPC (0.625% w/v) (1), but at 0.0625% w/v no significant changes in epithelial integrity were observed. The length of the fatty acid residue of lysophospholipids was identified as an important factor for intranasal absorption enhancing activity. The nature of the polar head group may also have an influence. Increased insulin absorption was not necessarily accompanied by severe disruption of the nasal epithelium. Careful selection of lysophospholipid type and concentration may enable therapeutic drug levels to be achieved via the nasal route without prohibitive toxic effects.