Section 10
Chapter 9,188

Phospholipase A2 engineering. Probing the structural and functional roles of N-terminal residues with site-directed mutagenesis, X-ray, and NMR

Liu, X.; Zhu, H.; Huang, B.; Rogers, J.; Yu, B.Z.; Kumar, A.; Jain, M.K.; Sundaralingam, M.; Tsai, M.D.

Biochemistry 34(22): 7322-7334


ISSN/ISBN: 0006-2960
PMID: 7779775
DOI: 10.1021/bi00022a005
Accession: 009187711

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The N-terminal residues of phospholipase A-2 (PLA2) are believed to be involved in the hydrogen-bonding network, the interfacial binding site, or the hydrophobic channel. Site-directed mutants of bovine pancreatic PLA2 with substitutions at positions 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, and 9 were constructed to test the roles of these residues in the structure and function of PLA2. Nonconservative mutations of Phe-5 and Ile-9, which are located inside the hydrophobic channel, led to significant perturbations in the conformation and conformational stability. Kinetic studies also indicated that mutations at Ile-9 and Phe-5 caused significant decreases in the rate of hydrolysis toward micellar and vesicle substrates. Scooting mode kinetic analysis showed that the binding step of the mutant enzymes to the DC-14PM (1,2-dimyristoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphomethanol) vesicle interface is not significantly affected and that the perturbations in catalysis occur mainly in k-cat at the interface. The results taken together suggest that the residues Ile-9 and Phe-5 are important for both structure and catalysis. The mutant W3A (Trp-3 to Ala) also showed decreased rates of hydrolysis but to a lesser extent than Ile-9 and Phe-5 mutants. In addition, the binding affinity of W3A to the surface of the vesicles (i.e., the E to E* step) has been perturbed to the extent that hopping between anionic vesicles has been observed. On the other hand, the mutants of Gln-4 and Asn-6, which are located at or near the surface, displayed structural and kinetic properties similar to those of the wild-type PLA2 with the exception of the highly hydrophilic lysine mutant. The X-ray structure of the Q4E mutant indicates that the overall structure, the catalytic triad, and the link between residue 4 and Asp-99 via hydrogen bonding through Ala-1 and the structural water remain the same as in the WT. Substitutions for Leu at position 2 showed an acyl chain length discrimination toward different substrates, which may reflect the contacting position(s) of the substrate acyl chain with Leu-2.

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