Phosphorylation modulates the function of the calcium release channel of sarcoplasmic reticulum from skeletal muscle
Hain, J.; Nath, S.; Mayrleitner, M.; Fleischer, S.; Schindler, H.
Biophysical Journal 67(5): 1823-1833
The modulation of the calcium release channel (CRC) by protein kinases and phosphatases was studied. For this purpose, we have developed a microsyringe applicator to achieve sequential and multiple treatments with highly purified kinases and phosphatases applied directly at the bilayer surface. Terminal cisternae vesicles of sarcoplasmic reticulum from rabbit fast twitch skeletal muscle were fused to planar lipid bilayers, and single-channel currents were measured at zero holding potential, at 0.15 microM free Ca2+, +/- 0.5 mM ATP and +/- 2.6 mM free Mg2+. Sequential dephosphorylation and rephosphorylation rendered the CRC sensitive and insensitive to block by Mg2+, respectively. Channel recovery from Mg2+ block was obtained by exogenous protein kinase A (PKA) or by Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CalPK II). Somewhat different characteristics were observed with the two kinases, suggesting two different states of phosphorylation. Channel block by Mg2+ was restored by dephosphorylation using protein phosphatase 1 (PPT1). Before application of protein kinases or phosphatases, channels were found to be "dephosphorylated" (inactive) in 60% and "phosphorylated" (active) in 40% of 51 single-channel experiments based on the criterion of sensitivity to block by Mg2+. Thus, these two states were interconvertable by treatment with exogenously added protein kinases and phosphatases. Endogenous Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase (end CalPK) had an opposite action to exogenous CalPK II. Previously, dephosphorylated channels using PPT (Mg2+ absent) were blocked in the closed state by action of endogenous CalPK. This block was removed to normal activity by the action of either PPT or by exogenous CalPK II. Our findings are consistent with a physiological role for phosphorylation/dephosphorylation in the modulation of the calcium release channel of sarcoplasmic reticulum from skeletal muscle. A corollary of our studies is that only the phosphorylated channel is active under physiological conditions (mM Mg2+). Our studies suggest that phosphorylation can be at more than one site and, depending on the site, can have different functional consequences on the CRC.