Plasma total versus bone alkaline phosphatase as markers of bone turnover in hemodialysis patients

Ureña, P.; Hruby, M.; Ferreira, A.; Ang, K.S.; de Vernejoul, M.C.

Journal of the American Society of Nephrology Jasn 7(3): 506-512


ISSN/ISBN: 1046-6673
PMID: 8704118
Accession: 009204276

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Plasma total versus bone alkaline phosphatase as markers of bone turnover in hemodialysis patients. Plasma bone-specific alkaline phosphatase (bAP) has been demonstrated to be more reliable than total alkaline phosphatases (tAP) in providing information about bone turnover in patients with metabolic bone diseases. This study surveyed 42 hemodialysis patients who underwent a systematic transiliac bone biopsy for histomorphometry study. Plasma bAP was determined by using a new immunoassay (Tandem-R Ostase, Hybritech, Liège, Belgium). Plasma bAP values were compared with those of two other plasma markers of bone metabolism, namely tAP and intact parathyroid hormone (iPTH), for the correlations with bone histomorphometric parameters. Patients with high-turnover bone disease (HTBD) (N = 32) had significantly higher plasma bAP levels than patients with normal or low bone turnover (N/LTBD) (N = 10) (66.9 +/- 63.5 ng/mL versus 10.8 +/- 4.2 ng/mL, respectively). Bone formation and resorption were highly correlated in these patients, and plasma bAP levels were positively correlated with bone resorption parameters, including osteoclast surface (r = 0.39, P < 0.0001) and osteoclast number/mm2 (r = 0.36, P < 0.001), and with bone formation parameters, osteoblast surface (r = 0.50, P < 0.005), and bone formation rate (r = 0.91, P < 0.0001). The bone formation rate was better correlated with plasma bAP levels than with either plasma tAP or iPTH concentrations. Plasma bAP level equal or higher than 20 ng/mL, either alone or combined with plasma iPTH of 200 pg/mL, had the highest sensitivity, specificity, and predictability values for the diagnosis of high-turnover bone disease, and formally excluded patients with normal or LTBD. In conclusion, plasma bAP can be measured with a reliable immunoassay in hemodialysis patients. It represents a highly sensitive and specific biochemical marker of skeletal remodeling in these patients. Therefore, both serum iPTH and bAP are complementary in diagnoses of the type of renal osteodystrophy.