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Reduced penetrance, variable expressivity, and genetic heterogeneity of familial atrial septal defects



Reduced penetrance, variable expressivity, and genetic heterogeneity of familial atrial septal defects



Circulation 97(20): 2043-2048



Background-Secundum atrial septal defect (ASD) is a common congenital heart malformation that occurs as an isolated anomaly in 10% of individuals with congenital heart disease. Although some embryological pathways have been elucidated, the molecular etiologies of ASD are not fully understood. Most cases of ASD are isolated, but some individuals with ASD have a family history of this defect or other congenital heart malformations. Methods and Results-Clinical evaluation of three families identified individuals with ASD in multiple generations. ASD was transmitted as an autosomal dominant trait in each family. ASD was the most common anomaly, but other heart defects occurred alone or in association with ASD in individuals from each kindred. Genome-wide linkage studies in one kindred localized a familial ASD disease gene to chromosome 5p (multipoint LOD score=3.6, theta=0.0). Assessment of 20 family members with the disease haplotype revealed that 9 had ASD, 8 were clinically unaffected, and 3 had other cardiac defects (aortic stenosis, atrial septal aneurysm, and persistent left superior vena cava). Familial ASD did not map to chromosome 5p in two other families. Conclusions-Familial ASD is a genetically heterogeneous disorder; one disease gene maps to chromosome 5p. Recognition of the heritable basis of familial ASD is complicated by low disease penetrance and variable expressivity. Identification of ASD or other congenital heart defects in more than one family member should prompt clinical evaluation of all relatives.

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Accession: 009312910

Download citation: RISBibTeXText

PMID: 9610535

DOI: 10.1161/01.cir.97.20.2043


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