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Reevaluation of autoantibodies to islet cell membrane in IDDM. Failure to detect islet cell surface antibodies using human islet cells as substrate



Reevaluation of autoantibodies to islet cell membrane in IDDM. Failure to detect islet cell surface antibodies using human islet cells as substrate



Diabetes 41(12): 1624-1631



Since their demonstration in 1975, ICSAs have been proposed as serological markers and pathogenic elements in IDDM. ICSAs are detected in the sera of most newly diagnosed IDDM patients by indirect IFL that uses viable preparations of rat islet or insulinoma cells as substrate, but they also can be detected by using human insulinoma or fetal islet cells. We have tried to demonstrate ICSAs in the sera of 31 newly diagnosed diabetic patients, including 6 positive samples on human fetal islet cells, which used their natural target for the first time: normal human islet cells. In spite of using different types of preparations of these cells (i.e., freshly dispersed cell suspensions, monolayer cultures, or dispersed islets after culture), ICSAs could not be detected by IFL under the UV microscope, nor by flow cytometry. In contrast, 9 of 29 of the sera gave a positive staining on the RIN rat insulinoma cells. In an attempt to establish whether the putative ICSA autoantigen is present in the surface of human islet cells in the diabetic pancreas, the insulitis microenvironment was emulated by exposing the islets to three types of stress: 1) cytokines (IFN-gamma and TNF-alpha); 2) heat shock; and 3) hyperglycemia. However, diabetic sera failed again to recognize membrane antigens on the islet cells after either of these treatments. Neither were islet cells from a newly diagnosed diabetic patient stained by its autologous serum (ICA titer > 80 JDF U). These results suggest that ICSA autoantigen is not expressed in the membrane of human islet cells and therefore raises doubts about their proposed pathogenic role.

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Accession: 009315209

Download citation: RISBibTeXText

PMID: 1446804

DOI: 10.2337/diab.41.12.1624



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