Relation of smoking at baseline and during trial years 1-6 to food and nutrient intakes and weight in the special intervention and usual care groups in the Multiple Risk Factor Intervention Trial

Stamler, J.; Rains-Clearman, D.; Lenz-Litzow, K.; Tillotson, J.L.; Grandits, G.A.

American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 65(1 Suppl): 374s-402s


ISSN/ISBN: 0002-9165
PMID: 8988949
Accession: 009327251

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This chapter describes dietary composition according to cigarette smoking status at baseline and changes in smoking status during follow-up for men in the special intervention (SI) and usual care (UC) groups of the Multiple Risk Factor Intervention Trial. Five patterns of smoking behavior were defined: 1) sustained nonsmoking, 2) early (years 1-2 of the trial) sustained quitting, 3) late (years 3-6 of the trial) sustained quitting, 4) recidivism, and 5) continued smoking. SI men who quit smoking showed greater favorable changes in dietary lipid composition and micronutrient intake than did continued smokers, and these changes were in many instances as great as favorable changes made by nonsmokers. On the other hand, SI men who quit smoking gained an average of 3.8 lb (1.7 kg), in contrast with nonsmokers who lost an average of 6.4 lb (2.9 kg). The gain by SI quitters was, however, less than that by UC quitters, who gained 6.5 lb (3.0 kg). Moreover, despite weight gain, net change in high-density-lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol for SI quitters was positive. With the associated decrease in low-density-lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol, early SI quitters had the most improvement in ratio of LDL to HDL among all subgroups. Thus, unfavorable nutritional patterns of smokers put them at double jeopardy regarding cardiovascular and other chronic diseases; additionally, long-term risks can be improved not only by smoking cessation but also by achievement of healthier eating patterns.