Section 10
Chapter 9,336

Removal of interproximal subgingival plaque by hand and automatic toothbrushes

Taylor, J.Y.; Wood, C.L.; Garnick, J.J.; Thompson, W.O.

Journal of Periodontology 66(3): 191-196


ISSN/ISBN: 0022-3492
PMID: 7776163
DOI: 10.1902/jop.1995.66.3.191
Accession: 009335676

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Subgingival plaque removal at interproximal sites by automatic and hand toothbrushes was compared with control sites at which cleansing was not performed. There were 58 patients, 35 to 63 years of age, each with one hopeless tooth requiring extraction. Each patient was randomly assigned to one of four test groups: hand brush; automatic toothbrush 1; automatic toothbrush 2; and no brushing. The brushing instructions as stated by the manufacturers were demonstrated and the patient brushed the sextant containing the test tooth for 20 seconds. The level of the gingival margin was marked at each interproximal test site. The teeth were extracted and processed for SEM, and subgingival plaque was viewed at X100 and X2000 magnifications. A montage of photomicrographs of the gingival groove to the occlusal margin of the bacterial plaque at X100 magnification was made and the distance from the groove to the margin was measured. An ANOVA was performed using P = 0.05 level for significance. Due to processing difficulties, only 33 specimens were available for analysis. The average distances from the groove to the subgingival plaque front for the four test groups were 0.514, 0.132, 0.163, and 0.111 mm respectively. The maximum distance (1.5 mm) of plaque removal was greatest for the hand toothbrush. Due to the large standard deviation (0.636 compared to 0.146, 0.250, and 0.124 respectively), the hand brushing group was excluded from ANOVA. There were no statistically significant differences among the automatic toothbrushes and the no brushing control (P = 0.8393). It was concluded that a single session of oral hygiene instruction with an automatic toothbrush did not result in subgingival interproximal plaque cleansing.

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