Responses of plasma catecholamines, renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system, and atrial natriuretic peptide to exercise in patients with essential hypertension
Kinugawa, T.; Endo, A.; Kato, M.; Kato, T.; Ahmmed, G.U.; Omodani, H.; Osaki, S.; Ogino, K.; Hisatome, I.; Miyakoda, H.; Fujimoto, Y.; Yoshida, A.; Shigemasa, C.
Cardiology 88(3): 238-245
ISSN/ISBN: 0008-6312 PMID: 9129844 DOI: 10.1159/000177336
Neurohormonal responses to exercise have not been studied fully in patients with essential hypertension (HT). This study determined if neurohormonal responses to exercise are altered between three subgroups of HT categorized by basal plasma renin activity (PRA). Plasma norepinephrine, epinephrine, atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP), PRA, angiotensin II (AII), and aldosterone were measured at rest and after submaximal treadmill exercise in 39 patients with essential HT (WHO classes I-II) and 13 controls. Patients with HT were divided into three subgroups based on the PRA level [low-renin (< 0.5) HT (n = 14), normal-renin (0.5-2.0) HT (n = 13), and high-renin (> 2.0) HT (n = 12)]. Patients with HT had higher blood pressure during exercise compared to controls, but blood pressure responses were similar among low-, normal-, and high-renin HT. Neurohormonal factors were comparable between all hypertensives and controls, except for higher plasma AII at rest in patients with HT. When neurohormones were compared among three subgroups of HT, plasma norepinephrine and epinephrine responses were similar. Patients with high-renin HT had higher PRA and AII, and lower ANP levels at rest and after exercise. In all hypertensives, negative correlations were observed between resting PRA and resting ANP (r = -0.41, p < 0.01), as well as peak PRA and peak ANP (r = -0.33, p < 0.05). Thus, neurohormonal responses to exercise varied with similar cardiac responses among subgroups of essential HT stratified according to renin levels. Patients with high-renin HT had augmented renin-angiotensin system activity with a decrease in ANP levels both at rest and after exercise. A reciprocal relationship between renin-angiotensin system activity and ANP was observed both at rest and after exercise in HT.