+ Site Statistics
+ Search Articles
+ PDF Full Text Service
How our service works
Request PDF Full Text
+ Follow Us
Follow on Facebook
Follow on Twitter
Follow on LinkedIn
+ Subscribe to Site Feeds
Most Shared
PDF Full Text
+ Translate
+ Recently Requested

Sex and genotype determine the selective activation of neurochemically-distinct mechanisms of swim stress-induced analgesia



Sex and genotype determine the selective activation of neurochemically-distinct mechanisms of swim stress-induced analgesia



Pharmacology, Biochemistry, and Behavior 56(1): 61-66



A growing literature documents the important influence of organismic factors such as sex and genotype on pain sensitivity and pain modulation. We recently determined that 3-min forced swims in 15 degrees C water produce non-opioid (i.e., naloxone-insensitive) analgesia in outbred Swiss-Webster mice of both sexes; this form of stress-induced analgesia (SIA) is significantly attenuated by the N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) antagonist, dizocilpine (MK-801) in males, but not females. A pilot study designed to confirm the non-opioid and (in male mice) NMDAergic nature of 15 degrees C swim SIA in the C57BL/6J and DBA/2J inbred strains used widely in gene mapping was conducted, using the hot-plate (54 degrees C) assay of nociception. In female mice of both strains, 15 degrees C swim SIA was insensitive to antagonism by either naloxone (10 mg/kg, i.p.) or dizocilpine (0.1 mg/kg. i.p.). In male C57BL/ 6J mice, the observed SIA was naloxone-insensitive, but was attenuated by dizocilpine. This pattern of results is virtually identical to that obtained using Swiss-Webster mice in this and previous studies. However, male DBA/2J mice displayed SIA that was significantly attenuated by naloxone, but insensitive to dizocilpine antagonism. These findings support the hypothesis that genetic factors and sex, in addition to stressor parameters, can determine the selective recruitment of alternative central mechanisms of pain inhibition.

Please choose payment method:






(PDF emailed within 0-6 h: $19.90)

Accession: 009408591

Download citation: RISBibTeXText

PMID: 8981610

DOI: 10.1016/S0091-3057(96)00157-8


Related references

Analgesia induced by swim stress: interaction between analgesic and thermoregulatory mechanisms. Pflugers Archiv 446(4): 463-469, 2003

Selective role of nucleus raphe magnus in mechanisms of analgesia elicited by electrocutaneous skin stimulation cold swim stress and morphine. Byulleten' Eksperimental'noi Biologii i Meditsiny 106(11): 561-563, 1988

Front paw and hind paw footshock induced analgesia are neurochemically distinct independent of current intensity. Society for Neuroscience Abstracts 10(1): 105, 1984

Acute progesterone can recruit sex-specific neurochemical mechanisms mediating swim stress-induced and kappa-opioid analgesia in mice. Hormones and Behavior 46(4): 467-473, 2004

Morphine analgesia and tolerance in mice selectively bred for divergent swim stress-induced analgesia. European Journal Of Pharmacology. 265(3): 171-174, 1994

Cross-tolerance between morphine and swim analgesia in mice selectively bred for high and low stress-induced analgesia. Pharmacology, Biochemistry, and Behavior 45(3): 527-531, 1993

Swim stress controllability Effects on behavioral despair, stress-induced analgesia and alcohol-induced motor ataxia. Society for Neuroscience Abstracts 25(1-2): 855, 1999

Computer assisted video analysis of swimming performance in a forced swim test: simultaneous assessment of duration of immobility and swimming style in mice selected for high and low swim-stress induced analgesia. Physiology & Behavior 95(3): 400-407, 2008

Mk 801 attenuates non opioid stress induced analgesia in selectively bred mice comparison across three swim stress paradigms. Society for Neuroscience Abstracts 17(1-2): 1209, 1991

Profound swim stress-induced analgesia with ketamine. Malaysian Journal of Medical Sciences 15(1): 13-22, 2008

Swim-stress induced analgesia and lack of its naloxone antagonism. Communications in Psychopharmacology 2(3): 263-266, 1978

Modulation of formalin-induced fos-like immunoreactivity in the spinal cord by swim stress-induced analgesia, morphine and ketamine. German Medical Science 6: Doc05-Doc05, 2008

Endorphin opioid independent mechanism of analgesia induced by swim stress in the rat. Federation Proceedings 37(3): 323, 1978

Swim stress-induced analgesia Effect of hypothermia, or of fear of drowning?. Society for Neuroscience Abstracts 25(1-2): 1126, 1999

N-methyl-D-aspartic acid (NMDA) receptor antagonist MK-801 blocks non-opioid stress-induced analgesia. II. Comparison across three swim-stress paradigms in selectively bred mice. Brain Research 578(1-2): 197-203, 1992