The 3' flanking region of the human erythropoietin-encoding gene contains nitrogen-regulatory/oxygen-sensing consensus sequences and tissue-specific transcriptional regulatory elements
Lee-Huang, S.; Lin, J.J.; Kung, H.F.; Huan, P.L.; Lee, L.; Huang, P.L.
Gene 137(2): 203-210
ISSN/ISBN: 0378-1119 PMID: 8299948 DOI: 10.1016/0378-1119(93)90007-p
We have reported the identification of a classical canonical CAAT box, TATA boxes and other transcriptional regulatory elements in the 5' flanking region of the human erythropoietin (hEp)-encoding gene (Lee-Huang et al., Gene 128 (1993) 227-236). These elements were not found in the hEp genomic clones reported by others. Our genomic clone extends in both directions beyond any reported clones, by 3.9 kb on the 5' side and by 1.8 kb on the 3' side. Many important regulatory elements are found in these extended flanking regions. We report here the genomic structure of the extended 3' flanking region of hEp. This region contains the following regulatory elements: nitrogen-regulatory/oxygen-sensing consensus sequences, 5'-TTTTGCA and 5'-CCCTGCA; tissue-specific regulatory elements, including binding sites for A-activator, 5'-GTGGTGCAA; for DBP, 5'-TGATTTTGT; for HNF, 5'-T(A/G)TTTGT; and for C/EBP, 5'-T(T/G) (T/G)TGCAAT; a lymphokine-responsive element, 5'-GTGAAACCCC (Rev), as well as binding sites for AP and Sp1. In addition, the nucleotide (nt) sequence in this region is rich in inverted repeats (palindromes) that allow the formation of hairpin loops. A total of 14 potential stem loops with a maximum loop size of 20 nt are found. The identification of these regulatory elements in hEp should provide further insight into the tissue-specific and inducible expression of hEp. Such knowledge should be useful in the clinical modulation of erythropoiesis under physiologic and pathologic conditions.