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The black scorpion Heterometrus longimanus: Structure of the venom secreting apparatus



The black scorpion Heterometrus longimanus: Structure of the venom secreting apparatus



Journal of Natural Toxins 4(1): 1-18



The venom apparatus of Heterometrus longimanus consisted of a pair Of venom glands within the telson. The secreting epithelium was arranged in the form of folds; the medial side of the gland was limited by the muscle and the lateral side by the cuticle. Light microscopy showed the secretory epithelium arranged in several layers around the septa. Electron microscopy showed 4 types of cells, Types I, II, III and IV, based on size, shape, number and electron density of the secretory granules. Under fluorescence microscope, areas of fluorescence were observed in the glandular tissue, indicating the presence of noradrenaline in the venom gland cells.

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