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The use of natural and unnatural amino acid substrates to define the substrate specificity differences of Escherichia coli aspartate and tyrosine aminotransferases

The use of natural and unnatural amino acid substrates to define the substrate specificity differences of Escherichia coli aspartate and tyrosine aminotransferases

Protein Science 4(9): 1743-1749

The tyrosine (eTATase) and aspartate (eAATase) aminotransferases of Escherichia coli transaminate diacarboxylic amino acids with similar rate constants. However, eTATase exhibits approximately 10(2)-10(4)-fold higher second-order rate constants for the transamination of aromatic amino acids than does eAATase. A series of natural and unnatural amino acid substrates was used to quantitate specificity differences for these two highly related enzymes. A general trend toward lower transamination activity with increasing side-chain length (extending from aspartate to glutamate to alpha-aminoadipate) is observed for both enzymes. This result suggests that dicarboxylate ligands associate with the two highly related enzymes in a similar manner. The high reactivity of the enzymes with L-Asp and L-Glu can be attributed to an ion pair interaction between the side-chain carboxylate of the amino acid substrate and the guanidino group of the active site residue Arg 292 that is common to both enzymes. A strong linear correlation between side-chain hydrophobicity and transamination rate constants obtains for n-alkyl side-chain amino substrates with eTATase, but not for eAATase. The present kinetic data support a model in which eAATase contains one binding mode for all classes of substrate, whereas the active site of eTATase allows an additional mode that has increased affinity for hydrophobic amino acid.

Accession: 009635729

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PMID: 8528072

DOI: 10.1002/pro.5560040909

Download PDF Full Text: The use of natural and unnatural amino acid substrates to define the substrate specificity differences of Escherichia coli aspartate and tyrosine aminotransferases

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