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Treatment of acute myeloblastic leukemia in adults. The GOELAM experience

Treatment of acute myeloblastic leukemia in adults. The GOELAM experience

Hematology & Cell Therapy 38(5): 381-391

The GOELAM group conducted 2 consecutive trials on the treatment of de novo acute myeloblastic leukemia (AML) in adults. In the GOELAM1 protocol 786 patients aged 15-65 were randomized between two induction treatments (ARA-C 200 mg/m2/day for 7 days plus either Idarubicin 8 mg/m2/day for 5 days or Rubidazone 200 mg/m2/day for 4 days). Out of 731 evaluable patients, 521 (71%) achieved complete remission (CR) without significant difference between the 2 anthracyclines. For patients aged 51-65, the CR rate was significantly higher with Idarubicin (75%) than with Rubidazone (61%) (p = 0.03). In this group of patients the post-remission therapy consisted in only one course of high dose ARA-C plus m-Amsa and the 6 year disease free survival (DFS) was 24% (intention to treat analysis). For patients aged 15-50 years, the post remission therapy was either allogeneic bone marrow transplantation (BMT) (patients up to 40 years of age with an HLA identical sibling) or a first course of intensive consolidation chemotherapy (ICC) followed by a randomization between autologous unpurged bone marrow transplantation (ABMT) and a second course of ICC. There was no significant difference in the 4 year DFS between allogeneic BMT (42%) and the other types of intensive post remission-therapy (40%). The 4 year DFS was 42% for ABMT and 38% for ICC (p = 0.46) (intention to treat analysis). However the median duration of thrombocytopenia was much longer after ABMT (109.5 days versus 18.5 days p = 0.0001). The GOELAM SA3 randomized placebo-controlled protocol tested the impact of GM-CSF given during and after induction treatment for elderly patients (55-75 years). In this study, 232 evaluable patients received induction chemotherapy (Idarubicin 8 mg/m2/day for 5 days plus ARA-C 100 mg/m2/day for 7 days) plus placebo or GM-CSF 5 micrograms/kg/day from day 1 until the end of neutropenia. The CR rate was 61.5%. The median duration of neutropenia was shorter in the GM-CSF arm (22 days versus 27 days p = 0.0001). There was no overall significant advantage for the GM-CSF arm, in terms of CR rate and survival. However for patients age 55-64 the 2 year DFS was significantly higher in the GM-CSF arm (43% vs 17% p = 0.0013).

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Accession: 009671706

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PMID: 8915668

DOI: 10.1007/s00282-996-0381-5

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