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Uncoupling the effects of energy expenditure and energy intake: appetite response to short-term energy deficit induced by meal omission and physical activity



Uncoupling the effects of energy expenditure and energy intake: appetite response to short-term energy deficit induced by meal omission and physical activity



Appetite 31(1): 9-19



The effects of two methods of inducing an acute energy deficit (exercise and a low-energy breakfast) on appetite were investigated in 11 healthy females, all of whom were regular exercisers and regular breakfast eaters. There were four experimental days: with exercise and a high-energy (500 kcal) breakfast (EHB), exercise and a low-energy (64 kcal) breakfast (ELB), no exercise and a high-energy breakfast (NEHB) and no exercise and a low-energy breakfast (NELB). Hunger and moods were monitored each hour from 8 a. m. until 5 p.m. Energy and macronutrient intake were measured during an ad libitum lunch test meal 4 h after the exercise and breakfast. Heart rate was continuously monitored using the Polar sport tester. The low-energy breakfasts (ELB and NELB) led to increased hunger during the morning and an increase in energy intake at lunch compared with the high-energy breakfasts. Subjects also experienced significantly more food cravings after LBs than after HBs. Exercise failed to have any significant effect on these variables. Thus, two methods of inducing a short-term energy deficit had markedly different effects on appetite. The low-energy breakfast presumably fails to generate the inhibitory satiety signals induced by the 500 kcal breakfast, whereas the metabolic effects of an exercise session failed to generate excitatory signals to hunger and food intake.

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Accession: 009694846

Download citation: RISBibTeXText

PMID: 9716432

DOI: 10.1006/appe.1997.0148



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