Ureteral obstructions and leaks after renal transplantation: outcome of percutaneous antegrade ureteral stent placement in 44 patients
Bhagat, V.J.; Gordon, R.L.; Osorio, R.W.; LaBerge, J.M.; Kerlan, R.K.; Melzer, J.S.; Bretan, P.N.; Wilson, M.W.; Ring, E.J.
Radiology 209(1): 159-167
ISSN/ISBN: 0033-8419 PMID: 9769827 DOI: 10.1148/radiology.209.1.9769827
To analyze the outcome of percutaneous antegrade ureteral stent placement for treatment of ureteral stenoses and leaks after renal transplantation. Antegrade pyelography and percutaneous ureteral stent placement were performed in 45 patients with ureteral obstruction (n = 40), leak (n = 3), or both (n = 2). Obstructions were graded as mild, moderate, or complete, and as early (< or = 3 months after transplantation) or late (> 3 months). The outcome of stent placement was successful in 25 (57%) patients (average follow-up, 30 months). The ureteroneocystostomy (UNC) was the most common site of obstructions (22 of 41), leaks (four of five), and successful outcomes (16 of 22). Moderate obstructions were most common (29 of 41) and responded best to treatment (17 of 29). Eighteen (69%) of 26 early obstructions and five (33%) of 15 late obstructions were successfully managed percutaneously. All complications (12 of 45 patients) were minor, with infections the most common (n = 7). No mortality or allograft loss was attributable to stent placement. Ureteral stents are safe and effective for the treatment of obstructions and leaks and are particularly effective for early and UNC obstructions. These stents may also be useful for temporary drainage.