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Avian sulfhydryl oxidase is not a metalloenzyme: adventitious binding of divalent metal ions to the enzyme

Avian sulfhydryl oxidase is not a metalloenzyme: adventitious binding of divalent metal ions to the enzyme

Biochemistry 42(37): 11074-11082

Metal- and flavin-dependent sulfhydryl oxidases catalyze the generation of disulfide bonds with reduction of oxygen to hydrogen peroxide. The mammalian skin enzyme has been reported to be copper-dependent, but a recent protein sequence shows it belongs to the Quiescin/sulfhydryl oxidase (QSOX) flavoprotein family. This work demonstrates that avian QSOX is not a metalloenzyme, and that copper and zinc ions inhibit the oxidation of reduced pancreatic ribonuclease by the enzyme. Studies with Zn(2+), as a redox inactive surrogate for copper, show that one Zn(2+) binds to four-electron-reduced QSOX by diverting electrons away from the flavin and into two of the three redox active disulfide bridges in the enzyme. The resulting zinc complex is modestly air-stable, reverting to a spectrum of the native protein with a t(1/2) of 40 min, whereas the four-electron-reduced native QSOX is reoxidized in less than a second under comparable conditions. Using tris(2-carboxyethyl)phosphine hydrochloride (TCEP), an alternate substrate of QSOX that binds Zn(2+) relatively weakly (unlike dithiothreitol), allows rapid inhibition of oxidase activity to be demonstrated at low micromolar metal levels. Zinc binding was followed by rapid-scanning spectrophotometry. Copper also binds the four-electron-reduced form of QSOX with a visible spectrum suggestive of active site occupancy. In addition to interactions with the reduced enzyme, dialysis experiments show that multiple copper and zinc ions can bind to the oxidized enzyme without the perturbation of the flavin spectrum seen earlier. These data suggest that a reinvestigation of the metal content of skin sulfhydryl oxidases is warranted. The redox-modulated binding of zinc to QSOX is considered in light of evidence for a role of zinc-thiolate interactions in redox signaling and zinc mobilization.

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Accession: 009775505

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PMID: 12974644

DOI: 10.1021/bi0301385

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