Insights into the catalytic mechanism of HlyC, the internal protein acyltransferase that activates Escherichia coli hemolysin toxin
Worsham, L.M.; Trent, M.S.; Earls, L.; Jolly, C.; Ernst-Fonberg, M.L.
Biochemistry 40(45): 13607-13616
ISSN/ISBN: 0006-2960 PMID: 11695909 DOI: 10.1021/bi011032h
Hemolysin, a toxic protein secreted by pathogenic Escherichia coli, is converted from nontoxic prohemolysin, proHlyA, to toxic hemolysin, HlyA, by an internal protein acyltransferase, HlyC. Acyl-acyl carrier protein (ACP) is the essential acyl donor. The acyltransferase reaction proceeds through two partial reactions and entails formation of a reactive acyl-HlyC intermediate [Trent, M. S., Worsham, L. M., and Ernst-Fonberg, M. L. (1999) Biochemistry 38, 9541-9548]. The ping pong kinetic mechanism implied by these findings was validated using two different acyl-ACP substrates, thus verifying the independence of the previously demonstrated two partial reactions. Assessments of the stability of the acyl-HlyC intermediate revealed an increased stability at pH 8.6 compared to more acidic pHs. Mutations of a single conserved histidine residue essential for catalysis gave minimal activity when substituted with a tyrosine residue and no activity with a lysine residue. Unlike numerous other His23 mutants, however, the H23K enzyme showed significant acyl-HlyC formation although it was unable to transfer the acyl group from the proposed amide bond intermediate to proHlyA. These findings are compatible with transient formation of acyl-His23 during the course of HlyC catalysis. The effects of several other single site-directed mutations of conserved residues of HlyC on different portions of the reaction progress were examined using a 39 500 kDa fragment of proHlyA which was a more effective substrate than intact proHlyA. Reprinted by permission of the publisher.