Transcriptional regulation of the type i myosin heavy chain promoter in inactive rat soleus
Huey, K.A.; Roy, R.R.; Haddad, F.; Edgerton, V.R.; Baldwin, K.M.
American Journal of Physiology. Cell Physiology 282(3): C528-C537
ISSN/ISBN: 0363-6143 PMID: 11832338 DOI: 10.1152/ajpcell.00355.2001
Chronic muscle inactivity with spinal cord isolation (SI) decreases expression of slow type I myosin heavy chain (MHC) while increasing expression of the faster MHC isoforms, primarily IIx. The purpose of this study was to determine whether type I MHC downregulation in the soleus muscle of SI rats is regulated transcriptionally and to identify cis-acting elements or regions of the rat type I MHC gene promoter involved in this response. One week of SI significantly decreased in vivo activity of the -3500-, -408-, -299-, -215-, and -171-bp type I MHC promoters. The activity of all tested deletions of the type I MHC promoter, relative to the human skeletal alpha-actin promoter, were significantly reduced in the SI soleus, except activity of the -171-bp promoter, which increased. Mutation of the betae3 element (-214/-190 bp) in the -215- and -408-bp promoters and deletion of this element (-171-bp promoter) attenuated type I downregulation with SI. Gel mobility shift assays demonstrated a decrease in transcription enhancer factor-1 binding to the betae3 element with SI, despite an increase in total binding to this region. These results demonstrate that type I MHC downregulation with SI is transcriptionally regulated and suggest that interactions between transcription enhancer factor-1 and the betae3 element are likely involved in this response.