A comparison of joint stability between anterior cruciate intact and deficient knees: a new canine model of anterior cruciate ligament disruption
Lopez, M.J.; Kunz, D.; Vanderby, R.; Heisey, D.; Bogdanske, J.; Markel, M.D.
Journal of Orthopaedic Research Official Publication of the Orthopaedic Research Society 21(2): 224-230
ISSN/ISBN: 0736-0266 PMID: 12568952 DOI: 10.1016/s0736-0266(02)00132-8
Transection of the canine anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) is a well-established osteoarthritis (OA) model. This study evaluated a new method of canine ACL disruption as well as canine knee joint laxity and joint capsule (JC) contribution to joint stability at two time points (16 and 26 weeks) after ACL disruption (n=5/time interval). Ten crossbreed hounds were evaluated with force plate gait analysis and radiographs at intervals up to 34 weeks after monopolar radiofrequency energy (MRFE) treatment of one randomly selected ACL. Each contralateral ACL was sham treated. The MRFE treated ACLs ruptured approximately eight weeks (mean 52.5 days, SEM+/-1.0, range 48-56 days) after treatment. Gait analysis and radiographic changes were consistent with established canine ACL transection models of OA. Anterior-posterior (AP) translation and medial-lateral (ML) rotation were measured in each knee at 30 degrees, 60 degrees, and 90 degrees of flexion with and then without JC with loads of 40 N in AP translation and 4 Nm in ML rotation. A statistically significant interaction in AP translation included JC by cruciate (P=0.02), and there was a trend for a cruciate by time (P=0.07) interaction. Significant interactions in ML rotational testing included the presence of joint capsule (P=0.0001) and angle by cruciate (P=0.0012). This study describes a model in which canine ACLs predictably rupture approximately eight weeks after arthroscopic surgery and details the contribution of JC to canine knee stability in both ACL intact and deficient knees. The model presented here avoids the introduction of potential surgical variables at the time of ACL rupture and may contribute to studies of OA pathogenesis and inhibition. This model may also be useful for insight into the pathologic changes that occur in the knee as the ACL undergoes degeneration prior to rupture.