A second step of chemotaxis after transendothelial migration: keratinocytes undergoing apoptosis release IFN-gamma-inducible protein 10, monokine induced by IFN-gamma, and IFN-gamma-inducible alpha-chemoattractant for T cell chemotaxis toward epidermis in atopic dermatitis
Klunker, S.; Trautmann, A.; Akdis, Mübeccel.; Verhagen, J.; Schmid-Grendelmeier, P.; Blaser, K.; Akdis, C.A.
Journal of Immunology 171(2): 1078-1084
Activation and skin-selective homing of T cells and their effector functions in the skin represent sequential immunological events in the pathogenesis of atopic dermatitis (AD). Apoptosis of keratinocytes, induced mainly by T cells and mediated by IFN-gamma and Fas, is the essential pathogenetic event in eczema formation. Keratinocyte apoptosis appears as activation-induced cell death in AD. By IFN-gamma stimulation, chemokines such as IFN-gamma-inducible protein 10, monokine induced by IFN-gamma, and IFN-gamma-inducible alpha-chemoattractant are strongly up-regulated in keratinocytes. These chemokines attract T cells bearing the specific receptor CXCR3, which is highly expressed on T cells isolated from skin biopsies of AD patients. Accordingly, an increased T cell chemotaxis was observed toward IFN-gamma-treated keratinocytes. Supporting these findings, enhanced IFN-gamma-inducible protein 10, monokine induced by IFN-gamma, and IFN-gamma-inducible alpha-chemoattractant expression was observed in lesional AD skin by immunohistochemical staining. These results indicate a second step of chemotaxis inside the skin after transendothelial migration of the inflammatory cells. Keratinocytes undergoing apoptosis in acute eczematous lesions release chemokines that attract more T cells toward the epidermis, which may further augment the inflammation and keratinocyte apoptosis.