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Acridinium ester labels: Esters, sulfonamides, and their applications

Acridinium ester labels: Esters, sulfonamides, and their applications

Journal of Clinical Ligand Assay 22(2): 105-122

Acridinium esters were discovered in the 1960s and made their debut in immunodiagnostics in 1979. Since then, hundreds of novel esters, amides and sulfonamides have been synthesized and employed not only in immunoassays, but also DNA/RNA diagnostics, flow-injection techniques, and cellular studies. Manipulations in the acridinium ester moiety attached to macromolecules has allowed for energy-transfer methods, while incorporation into DNA oligonucleotide sequences has been exploited in a homogeneous DNA hybridization assay for infectious agents. Further synthetic ingenuity has led to multi-label polymers, and derivatives exhibiting a wide spectrum of chemiluminescence emission kinetics. With the recent introduction of acridinium compounds as enzyme substrates, clinical applications now encompass those requiring rapid measurements from transiently-emitting labels, to those which favor the potentially higher sensitivity of prolonged emission from enzyme labels, and which may also be amenable to photographic imaging.

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Accession: 010118266

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