Acute hemodynamic and neurohumoral effects of moxonidine in congestive heart failure secondary to ischemic or idiopathic dilated cardiomyopathy
Dickstein, K.; Manhenke, C.; Aarsland, T.; Køpp, U.; McNay, J.; Wiltse, C.
American Journal of Cardiology 83(12): 1638-1644
ISSN/ISBN: 0002-9149 PMID: 10392868 DOI: 10.1016/s0002-9149(99)00170-8
Elevated plasma norepinephrine (PNE) has been shown to be an important predictor of morbidity and mortality in patients with congestive heart failure (CHF). Moxonidine selectively stimulates imidazoline receptors located in the medulla, which centrally inhibit sympathetic outflow. PNE is suppressed and peripheral vasodilation reduces systemic blood pressure. This study evaluated the acute neurohumoral and hemodynamic effects of a single dose of oral moxonidine in 32 patients (22 men, mean +- SD age 66 +- 10 years) with CHF. All patients were in New York Heart Association functional class III and stabilized on chronic therapy with diuretics, digitalis, and angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors. The mean PNE concentration was 509 +- 304 pg/ml at baseline. Patients underwent invasive hemodynamic monitoring after double-blind randomization to either placebo (n = 12), moxonidine 0.4 mg (n = 9), or moxonidine 0.6 mg (n = 11). Moxonidine produced a dose-dependent, vasodilator response compared with placebo. Analysis of the time-averaged change from baseline over 6 hours demonstrated that moxonidine 0.6 mg caused significant reductions in mean systemic arterial pressure (p <0.0001), mean pulmonary arterial pressure (p <0.005), systemic vascular resistance (p <0.05), pulmonary vascular resistance (p <0.01), and heart rate (p <0.05). Stroke volume was unchanged. PNE was reduced substantially (-180 pg/ml at 4 hours, p <0.005) and the reduction was highly correlated with the baseline level (r = -0.968). Moxonidine was well tolerated in this single-dose study and resulted in a modest, dose-dependent, vasodilator response, with substantial reductions in systemic and pulmonary arterial blood pressure. Trials designed to evaluate the clinical efficacy of chronic moxonidine therapy in CHF added to conventional therapy would be appropriate.