EurekaMag.com logo
+ Site Statistics
References:
52,654,530
Abstracts:
29,560,856
PMIDs:
28,072,755
+ Search Articles
+ Subscribe to Site Feeds
EurekaMag Most Shared ContentMost Shared
EurekaMag PDF Full Text ContentPDF Full Text
+ PDF Full Text
Request PDF Full TextRequest PDF Full Text
+ Follow Us
Follow on FacebookFollow on Facebook
Follow on TwitterFollow on Twitter
Follow on LinkedInFollow on LinkedIn

+ Translate

Comparative analysis of evolutionary mechanisms of the hemagglutinin and three internal protein genes of influenza B virus: multiple cocirculating lineages and frequent reassortment of the NP, M, and NS genes



Comparative analysis of evolutionary mechanisms of the hemagglutinin and three internal protein genes of influenza B virus: multiple cocirculating lineages and frequent reassortment of the NP, M, and NS genes



Journal of Virology 73(5): 4413-4426



Phylogenetic profiles of the genes coding for the hemagglutinin (HA) protein, nucleoprotein (NP), matrix (M) protein, and nonstructural (NS) proteins of influenza B viruses isolated from 1940 to 1998 were analyzed in a parallel manner in order to understand the evolutionary mechanisms of these viruses. Unlike human influenza A (H3N2) viruses, the evolutionary pathways of all four genes of recent influenza B viruses revealed similar patterns of genetic divergence into two major lineages. Although evolutionary rates of the HA, NP, M, and NS genes of influenza B viruses were estimated to be generally lower than those of human influenza A viruses, genes of influenza B viruses demonstrated complex phylogenetic patterns, indicating alternative mechanisms for generation of virus variability. Topologies of the evolutionary trees of each gene were determined to be quite distinct from one another, showing that these genes were evolving in an independent manner. Furthermore, variable topologies were apparently the result of frequent genetic exchange among cocirculating epidemic viruses. Evolutionary analysis done in the present study provided further evidence for cocirculation of multiple lineages as well as sequestering and reemergence of phylogenetic lineages of the internal genes. In addition, comparison of deduced amino acid sequences revealed a novel amino acid deletion in the HA1 domain of the HA protein of recent isolates from 1998 belonging to the B/Yamagata/16/88-like lineage. It thus became apparent that, despite lower evolutionary rates, influenza B viruses were able to generate genetic diversity among circulating viruses through a combination of evolutionary mechanisms involving cocirculating lineages and genetic reassortment by which new variants with distinct gene constellations emerged.

(PDF emailed within 1 workday: $29.90)

Accession: 010350406

Download citation: RISBibTeXText

PMID: 10196339



Related references

Evolutionary pattern of the hemagglutinin gene of influenza B viruses isolated in Japan: cocirculating lineages in the same epidemic season. Journal of Virology 64(6): 2860-2865, 1990

A rapid method for the analysis of influenza virus genes: application to the reassortment of equine influenza virus genes. Virus Research 32(3): 391-399, 1994

Distinct lineages of influenza virus H4 hemagglutinin genes in different regions of the world. Virology 169(2): 408-417, 1989

Rapid reassortment of internal genes in avian influenza A(H7N9) virus. Clinical Infectious Diseases 57(7): 1059-1061, 2014

Analysis of genetic variation of hemagglutinin and three internal genes of influenza B virus isolated in Zhejiang province from 1999 to 2012. Zhonghua Yu Fang Yi Xue Za Zhi 47(5): 408-414, 2014

Whole-genome analysis of human influenza A virus reveals multiple persistent lineages and reassortment among recent H3N2 viruses. Plos Biology 3(9): E300-E300, 2005

Molecular evolution of avian reovirus: evidence for genetic diversity and reassortment of the S-class genome segments and multiple cocirculating lineages. Virology 314(1): 336-349, 2003

In silico analysis of genes nucleoprotein, neuraminidase and hemagglutinin: a comparative study on different strains of influenza A (Bird flu) virus sub-type H5N1. In Silico Biology 6(3): 161-168, 2006

Phylogenetic analysis of the entire genome of influenza A (H3N2) viruses from Japan: evidence for genetic reassortment of the six internal genes. Journal of Virology 72(10): 8021-8031, 1998

Evolutionary characterization of human H1N1 influenza virus hemagglutinin genes isolated from 1947 to 2009 in China. Intervirology 54(5): 233-245, 2011

Phylogenetic analysis based on hemagglutinin and neuraminidase genes between swine influenza virus and human influenza A/H3N2 virus strains isolated in Zhejiang province. Zhongguo Yi Miao He Mian Yi 16(2): 151-156, 2010

Altered pathogenicity for seasonal influenza virus by single reassortment of the RNP genes derived from the 2009 pandemic influenza virus. Journal of Infectious Diseases 204(6): 864-872, 2011

Supplement: Sixth International Symposium on Avian Influenza || An Avian Influenza Virus from Waterfowl in South America Contains Genes from North American Avian and Equine Lineages (Un virus de influenza aviar aislado de ayes acuticas en Amrica del Sur contiene genes de linajes aviares provenientes de Amrica del Norte y de equinos). Avian Diseases 51(1): 273-274, 2007

Evolutionary characterization of the six internal genes of H5N1 human influenza A virus. Journal of General Virology 81(Pt 5): 1293-1303, 2000

Pathogenicity of modified bat influenza virus with different M genes and its reassortment potential with swine influenza A virus. Journal of General Virology 98(4): 577-584, 2017