Cytokine production in acute versus chronic human Schistosomiasis mansoni: the cross-regulatory role of interferon-gamma and interleukin-10 in the responses of peripheral blood mononuclear cells and splenocytes to parasite antigens
Montenegro, S.M.; Miranda, P.; Mahanty, S.; Abath, F.G.; Teixeira, K.M.; Coutinho, E.M.; Brinkman, J.; Gonçalves, I.; Domingues, L.A.; Domingues, A.L.; Sher, A.; Wynn, T.A.
Journal of Infectious Diseases 179(6): 1502-1514
The contribution of interleukin (IL)-10 and interferon (IFN)-gamma to the regulation of type 1 and type 2 cytokine responses was investigated in Brazilians with different clinical forms of schistosomiasis mansoni. Cells from members of a family with acute intestinal schistosomiasis responded to schistosomal soluble egg antigen (SEA) or soluble adult worm antigen preparation (SWAP) with greater amounts of IFN-gamma than did cells from several patients with chronic intestinal schistosomiasis; IL-10 levels were similar. Neutralization of IL-10 had no effect on the SEA-specific IFN-gamma response in patients with acute infection, whereas SWAP-induced IFN-gamma was increased in both groups. Anti-IL-10 also up-regulated SEA-specific IFN-gamma protein and mRNA responses in most splenocyte cultures from hepatosplenic schistosomiasis patients but had no effect on antigen-specific IL-4 or IL-5 production. Neutralization of IFN-gamma resulted in a comparable increase in SWAP-specific IL-10 and IL-5, while IL-4 was not affected. These studies demonstrate that early disease in schistosomiasis is associated with a significant IFN-gamma response and that IL-10 contributes to the suppression of that response during both early and chronic infection.