Delayed type hypersensitivity-associated cytokines in islet xenotransplantation: limited efficacy of interleukin-2- and tumor necrosis factor-alpha-blockade in interferon-gamma receptor-deficient mice
Benda, B.; Lycke, N.; Holstad, M.; Korsgren, O.
Xenotransplantation 7(3): 206-213
ISSN/ISBN: 0908-665X PMID: 11021666 DOI: 10.1034/j.1399-3089.2000.00055.x
To investigate the role of interferon (IFN)-gamma and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha and their potential to replace each other in the process of fetal porcine islet-like cell cluster (ICC) xenograft rejection, mice with a targeted disruption of the IFN-gamma receptor gene and wild-type controls were transplanted with fetal porcine ICCs under the kidney capsule and given post-transplant treatment with the TNF-alpha-inhibiting agent MDL 201,449A. Some of the MDL 201,449A-treated IFN-gamma receptor-deficient mice received additional treatment with cyclosporinee (CsA). Evaluation of the xenografts was performed 7 days after transplantation (all groups), and in IFN-gamma receptor-deficient mice treated with MDL 201 449 A, also 10 and 13 days after transplantation. On day 7 after transplantation, a few CD3+ cells were seen accumulated peripherally in the ICC xenograft. Moderate to abundant numbers of F4/80+ and Mac-1+ cells surrounded a few remaining ICCs present within the xenograft. Histochemical visualization of cyanide-resistant endogenous peroxidase activity for detection of eosinophils demonstrated only small numbers of eosinophils present within the xenograft by day 7 after transplantation. An increased amount of eosinophilic granulocytes was not found until day 10 after transplantation, i.e. at a time when ICC xenograft rejection has already been completed. However, two out of six IFN-gamma receptor-deficient mice given post-transplant treatment with CsA and MDL 201,449A exhibited intact ICC xenografts with ICCs arranged in chords and duct-like structures on day 7 after transplantation. Taken together, findings in this study indicate that, in the pig-to-mouse model, IFN-gamma, TNF-alpha, and interleukin-2 seem to be of importance to fetal porcine ICC xenograft rejection. Nevertheless, in a majority of animals, other cytokines eventually substitute for the lack of IFN-gamma, TNF-alpha and interleukin-2.