Effects of flour particle size and starch damage on processing and quality of white salted noodles
Hatcher, D.; Anderson, M.; Desjardins, R.; Edwards, N.; Dexter, J.
Cereal Chemistry 79(1): 64-71
ISSN/ISBN: 0009-0352 DOI: 10.1094/cchem.2002.79.1.64
Several reduction grinding conditions were used on a Canadian Western Red Spring (CWRS) farina to yield flours of comparable protein content within three specific particle size ranges (132-193, 110-132, 85-110 micrometer) at three starch damage levels (3.0, 3.9, 7.0 Megazyme units). White salted noodles (1% w/w NaCl) were initially processed at a fixed absorption (32%). Dynamic oscillatory and large deformation creep measurements indicated that doughs with lower starch damage, thick or thin, exhibited lower G' (storage modulus), higher tan delta (G"[loss modulus]/G') values, and greater maximum strain during creep than doughs with higher starch damage. There were no clear trends between work input during sheeting and either starch damage or particle size. Instrumental texture analysis of raw noodles showed no significant differences due to either starch damage or flour particle size. Flours with fine particle size gave cooked noodles with the best textural attributes, whereas starch damage exhibited no consistent relationship with cooked noodle texture. Cooking loss was greatest in samples with highest starch damage and coarsest particle size; water uptake was inversely related to starch damage and particle size. Experiments were repeated at adjusted water absorptions (32-36.5%) for fine and coarse flours with highest and lowest starch damage. Differences in raw noodle dough rheological properties were largely eliminated, confirming that differences noted at constant absorption were primarily due to flour water absorption. Work input during sheeting was inversely related to starch damage and was higher for fine particle size. Cooking losses were highest for higher starch damage and fine particle size. Water uptake was highest for fine particle size, but in contrast to cooking loss, was higher at lower starch damage. Textural parameters indicated superior cooking quality when particle size was finer and starch damage was lower. Flour particle size and starch damage (as indicated by water absorption) are both primary quality determinants of white salted noodle properties and, to some extent, exert their influence independently.