+ Site Statistics
+ Search Articles
+ PDF Full Text Service
How our service works
Request PDF Full Text
+ Follow Us
Follow on Facebook
Follow on Twitter
Follow on LinkedIn
+ Subscribe to Site Feeds
Most Shared
PDF Full Text
+ Translate
+ Recently Requested

Effects of interleukin-1-beta, interleukin-6 and tumor necrosis factor-alpha, alone or in association with hexarelin or galanin, on growth hormone gene expression and growth hormone release from pig pituitary cells



Effects of interleukin-1-beta, interleukin-6 and tumor necrosis factor-alpha, alone or in association with hexarelin or galanin, on growth hormone gene expression and growth hormone release from pig pituitary cells



Hormone Research 58(4): 180-186



Objective: We studied the effects of IL-1beta, IL-6 and TNF-alpha on GH gene expression and secretion with or without galanin and hexarelin. Methods: Pituitary cells from adult pigs were treated with IL-1beta, IL-6 or TNF-alpha (1, 10 and 100 ng/ml), alone or in association with galanin or hexarelin (10-8 M): GH mRNA was measured by RT-PCR and GH secretion by ELISA. Results: IL-1beta (1, 10 and 100 ng/ml) and IL-6 (1 and 10 ng/ml) significantly (p < 0.05) enhanced GH output. IL-1beta and TNF-alpha (1 and 10 ng/ml) reduced (p < 0.05) the galanin-induced GH secretion and IL-6 (10 ng/ml) potentiated the effect of both GH releasers (p < 0.05). GH gene expression was increased only by IL-6 at the concentrations of 1 and 10 ng/ml, either alone or in association with both galanin and hexarelin. Conclusions: We hypothesize that cytokines may play a paracrine/autocrine role in GH regulation in the pituitary independently from the intracellular pathways of the GH secretagogues.

Please choose payment method:






(PDF emailed within 1 workday: $29.90)

Accession: 010555450

Download citation: RISBibTeXText

PMID: 12324716


Related references

Effects of Interleukin-1-Beta, Interleukin-6 and Tumor Necrosis Factor-Alpha, Alone or in Association with Hexarelin or Galanin, on Growth Hormone Gene Expression and Growth Hormone Release from Pig Pituitary Cells. Hormone Research 58(4): 180-186, 2002

Proinflammatory cytokines interleukin 1 beta and tumor necrosis factor alpha inhibit growth hormone stimulation of insulin-like growth factor I synthesis and growth hormone receptor mRNA levels in cultured rat liver cells. European Journal of Endocrinology 135(6): 729-737, 1996

Interleukin-1 beta modulates the acute release of growth hormone-releasing hormone and somatostatin from rat hypothalamus in vitro, whereas tumor necrosis factor and interleukin-6 have no effect. Endocrinology 129(3): 1275-1282, 1991

The effects of a continuous infusion of hexarelin on pulsatile growth hormone release, growth axis and galanin gene expression and on the response of the growth axis to growth hormone-releasing hormone. Pituitary 2(4): 253-260, 2000

Interleukin 1 beta and tumor necrosis factor alpha stimulate the release of gonadotropin releasing hormone and interleukin 6 by primary cultured rat hypothalamic cells. Acta Endocrinologica 123(4): 476-480, 1990

Effects of tumour necrosis factor-alpha on growth hormone and interleukin 6 mRNA in ovine pituitary cells. MolecularandCellularEndocrinology84(1-2):R31, 1992

Proinflammatory cytokines interleukin 1 and tumor necrosis factor inhibit growth hormone stimulation of insulin-like growth factor I synthesis and growth hormone receptor mRna levels in cultured rat liver cells. European Journal of Endocrinology 135(6): 729-737, 1996

Inhibition by interleukin-1 beta and tumor necrosis factor-alpha of the insulin-like growth factor I messenger ribonucleic acid response to growth hormone in rat hepatocyte primary culture. Endocrinology 138(3): 1078-1084, 1997

Liposomal muramyl tripeptide up-regulates interleukin-1 alpha, interleukin-1 beta, tumor necrosis factor-alpha, interleukin-6 and interleukin-8 gene expression in human monocytes. Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics 268(2): 1032-1039, 1994

Transcriptional mechanisms of type I collagen gene expression are differentially regulated by interleukin-1 beta, tumor necrosis factor alpha, and transforming growth factor beta in Ito cells. Journal of Biological Chemistry 267(20): 14316-14321, 1992

Regulation of murine protein C gene expression in vivo: effects of tumor necrosis factor-alpha, interleukin-1, and transforming growth factor-beta. Thrombosis and Haemostasis 82(4): 1297-1301, 1999

Transforming growth factor-beta-mediated suppression of C3 gene expression in interferon-gamma, interleukin-1-beta and tumor necrosis factor-alpha-treated D54-MG astroglioma cells and primary rat astrocytes. Journal of Immunology 150(8 Part 2): 227A, 1993

Interleukin 1 but not tumor necrosis factor modulates the acute release of somatostatin and growth hormone releasing hormone from the rat hypothalamus in vitro. Journal of Endocrinology 127(Suppl.): ABSTRACT 98, 1990

Upregulation of fibroblast keratinocyte growth factor mRNA expression by interleukin-1-alpha, interleukin-1-beta and tumor necrosis factor alpha. Journal of Investigative Dermatology 102(4): 528, 1994

Interleukin 8 modulates interleukin-1 beta, interleukin-6 and tumor necrosis factor-alpha release from normal human mononuclear cells. Immunopharmacology 27(3): 207-214, 1994