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Endemic forest disturbances and stand structure of ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa) in the upper pine creek research natural area, South Dakota, USA



Endemic forest disturbances and stand structure of ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa) in the upper pine creek research natural area, South Dakota, USA



Natural Areas Journal 20(2): 126-132



Disturbances are natural and essential components of healthy ecosystems, but their ecological roles in the maintenance of endemic conditions for an area (that is, long-established levels of activity that are of low magnitude and relatively static intensity and cause unnoticed or relatively low amounts of tree killing, defoliation, or deformation) are poorly understood.

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Accession: 010583014

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