Enhancement of bone morphogenetic protein-2-induced new bone formation in mice by the phosphodiesterase inhibitor pentoxifylline
Horiuchi, H.; Saito, N.; Kinoshita, T.; Wakabayashi, S.; Tsutsumimoto, T.; Takaoka, K.
Bone 28(3): 290-294
Porous collagen disks (6 mm diameter, 1 mm thickness) were impregnated with recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein-2 (rhBMP-2) (5 mug/disk) and implanted onto the back muscles of mice. Pentoxifylline (PTX), which is a methylxanthine-derived inhibitor of phosphodiesterases (PDEs), or vehicle, was injected (5, 25, 50, 100, 200, and 300 mg/kg body weight/day) into the mice subcutaneously once a day for 3 weeks from the day of implantation of the bone morphogenetic protein (BMP)-laden disks. The rhBMP-2-induced ectopic ossicles were harvested and examined using radiographic, histological, and biochemical methods to determine size, bone quality, and calcium content. When compared with controls, ossicles from mice treated with >50 mg/kg per day of PTX were significantly larger in size and had a greater calcium content. However, no differences were noted in mice treated with lower doses (5 and 25 mg/kg per day) of PTX. The temporal sequence of the bone-forming process was unchanged by PTX based on histological examination. The histology of the ossicles from high- and low-dose PTX-treated mice was essentially identical to that observed in the control mice. These experimental results indicate that PTX enhanced the bone-inducing capacity of BMP-2. The underlying mechanism of action most likely involves the inhibition of intracellular phosphodiesterases and a resulting elevation of the intracellular content of cyclic nucleotides. Further studies are warranted to understand how BMP-induced bone formation is pharmacologically modified by PTX.