Evidence for cytochrome P4501A2-mediated protein covalent binding of thiabendazole and for its passive intestinal transport: use of human and rabbit derived cells
Coulet, M.; Eeckhoutte, C.; Larrieu, G.; Sutra, J.F.; Alvinerie, M.; Macé, K.; Pfeifer, A.; Zucco, F.; Stammati, A.L.; De Angelis, I.; Vignoli, A.L.; Galtier, P.
Chemico-Biological Interactions 127(2): 109-124
Thiabendazole (TBZ), an anthelmintic and fungicide benzimidazole, was recently demonstrated to be extensively metabolized by cytochrome P450 (CYP) 1A2 in man and rabbit, yielding 5-hydroxythiabendazole (5OH-TBZ), the major metabolite furtherly conjugated, and two minor unidentified metabolites (M1 and M2). In this study, exposure of rabbit and human cells to 14C-TBZ was also shown to be associated with the appearance of radioactivity irreversibly bound to proteins. The nature of CYP isoforms involved in this covalent binding was investigated by using cultured rabbit hepatocytes treated or not with various CYP inducers (CYP1A1/2 by beta-naphthoflavone, CYP2B4 by phenobarbital, CYP3A6 by rifampicine, CYP4A by clofibrate) and human liver and bronchial CYP-expressing cells. The covalent binding to proteins was particularly increased in beta-naphthoflavone-treated rabbit cells (2- to 4-fold over control) and human cells expressing CYP1A2 (22- to 42-fold over control). Thus, CYP1A2 is a major isoenzyme involved in the formation of TBZ-derived residues bound to protein. Furthermore, according to the good correlation between covalent binding and M1 or 5OH-TBZ production, TBZ would be firstly metabolized to 5OH-TBZ and subsequently converted to a chemically reactive metabolic intermediate binding to proteins. This metabolic activation could take place preferentially in liver and lung, the main biotransformation organs, rather than in intestines where TBZ was shown to be not metabolized. Moreover, TBZ was rapidly transported by passive diffusion through the human intestinal cells by comparison with the protein-bound residues which were not able to cross the intestinal barrier. Consequently, the absence of toxicity measured in intestines could be related to the low degree of TBZ metabolism and the lack of absorption of protein adducts. Nevertheless, caution is necessary in the use of TBZ concurrently with other drugs able to regulate CYP1A2, particularly in respect to liver and lung tissues, recognised as sites of covalent-binding.