Green sulfur bacteria from hypersaline Chiprana Lake (Monegros, Spain) : habitat description and phylogenetic relationship of isolated strains
Vila, X.; Guyoneaud, R.ém.; Cristina, X.P.; Figueras, J.B.; Abella, C.A.
Photosynthesis Research 71(1-2): 165-172
ISSN/ISBN: 1573-5079 PMID: 16228510 DOI: 10.1023/a:1014915900644
The 'Salada de Chiprana' (Chiprana Lake) is a hypersaline (30-73 per thousand), permanent and shallow lake of endorheic origin in a semi-arid region of the Ebro depression (Aragon, Spain). Magnesium sulfate and sodium chloride represent the main salts of this athalassohaline environment. Anoxic conditions occurred periodically in the bottom layers of the lake during the study period. When stratified, high sulfide concentrations (up to 7 mM) were measured in the hypolimnion. Physical and chemical conditions gave rise to the development of very dense green sulfur bacteria blooms (10.7 mg l(-1) of BChl c and 16.7 mg l(-1) of BChl d) at 0.5-1 m from the bottom. Microscopic observations revealed that cells morphologically similar to Chlorobium vibrioforme were dominant in the phototrophic bacterial community, but Prosthecochloris aestuarii was also found sometimes at lower concentrations, as revealed by both microscopic observation and flow cytometric analyses. Deep agar dilution series allowed to obtain several axenic cultures of phototrophic bacteria. They were identified according to their morphology, pigment composition and phylogenetic relationships (16S rDNA sequence analysis). Two of the sequenced strains (CHP3401 and CHP3402) belonged to the green sulfur bacteria and were related to Prosthecochloris aestuarii SK413(T) and Chlorobium vibrioforme DSM260(T), respectively. HPLC analyses of both natural samples and Chlorobium vibrioforme isolates indicated that these strains contained both BChl c and BChl d. Phylogenetic results suggested that Chlorobium vibrioforme strains DSM260(T) and CHP3402, all sequenced strains of Prosthecochloris aestuarii and strain CIB2401 constitute a separate cluster of green sulfur bacteria, all of them isolated from marine to hypersaline habitats.