Histidyl-tRNA synthetase and asparaginyl-tRNA synthetase, autoantigens in myositis, activate chemokine receptors on T lymphocytes and immature dendritic cells
Howard, O.M.Z.; Dong, H.F.; Yang, D.; Raben, N.; Nagaraju, K.; Rosen, A.; Casciola-Rosen, L.; Härtlein, M.; Kron, M.; Yang, D.; Yiadom, K.; Dwivedi, S.; Plotz, P.H.; Oppenheim, J.J.
Journal of Experimental Medicine 196(6): 781-791
ISSN/ISBN: 0022-1007 PMID: 12235211 DOI: 10.1084/jem.20020186
Autoantibodies to histidyl-tRNA synthetase (HisRS) or to alanyl-, asparaginyl-, glycyl-, isoleucyl-, or threonyl-tRNA synthetase occur in approximately 25% of patients with polymyositis or dermatomyositis. We tested the ability of several aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases to induce leukocyte migration. HisRS induced CD4(+) and CD8(+) lymphocytes, interleukin (IL)-2-activated monocytes, and immature dendritic cells (iDCs) to migrate, but not neutrophils, mature DCs, or unstimulated monocytes. An NH(2)-terminal domain, 1-48 HisRS, was chemotactic for lymphocytes and activated monocytes, whereas a deletion mutant, HisRS-M, was inactive. HisRS selectively activated CC chemokine receptor (CCR)5-transfected HEK-293 cells, inducing migration by interacting with extracellular domain three. Furthermore, monoclonal anti-CCR5 blocked HisRS-induced chemotaxis and conversely, HisRS blocked anti-CCR5 binding. Asparaginyl-tRNA synthetase induced migration of lymphocytes, activated monocytes, iDCs, and CCR3-transfected HEK-293 cells. Seryl-tRNA synthetase induced migration of CCR3-transfected cells but not iDCs. Nonautoantigenic aspartyl-tRNA and lysyl-tRNA synthetases were not chemotactic. Thus, autoantigenic aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases, perhaps liberated from damaged muscle cells, may perpetuate the development of myositis by recruiting mononuclear cells that induce innate and adaptive immune responses. Therefore, the selection of a self-molecule as a target for an autoantibody response may be a consequence of the proinflammatory properties of the molecule itself.