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Hyphenated liquid chromatographic techniques in forensic toxicology

Hyphenated liquid chromatographic techniques in forensic toxicology

Journal of Chromatography B 733(1-2): 65-91, Oct 15

The prerequisite of applicability of hyphenated methods in forensic analysis is the achievement of a stage of "final maturity". In the field of liquid chromatography, HPLC coupled with diode array detection (DAD) seems to fulfill this criterion, whilst the combination with atmospheric pressure ionization mass spectrometry (HPLC-API-MS) is still in a development stage. HPLC-DAD is broadly used as identification tool in forensic and in emergency toxicology. Two main approaches were observed; development of retention index scales for intra-laboratory exchange of data and establishing of databases only for intra-laboratory use. Using these approaches, several databases were established for toxicological relevant substances (illicit and therapeutic drugs and their metabolites, environmental poisons etc.) in biological fluids. Also, complete HPLC-DAD identification systems are commercially available. Further possibility of progress depends on the on-line combination ("triple hyphenation") wi th other detection methods, preferably API-MS. HPLC-API-MS, both in electrospray (ESI) and atmospheric pressure chemical ionization (APCI) options, underwent dramatic development in the last decade and is reaching its final shape. The method was broadly applied for various groups of toxicologically relevant substances, a lot of them unaccessible for other techniques, including GC-MS. Particularly important was application of HPLC-API-MS for detection and quantitation of active, polar metabolites of various drugs and for analysis of macromolecules. APCI seems to be more useful for analysis of less polar compounds, whereas ESI is particularly valuable for determination of polar, large molecules (e.g., toxic peptides, polar metabolites etc.) Up to now, HPLC-API-MS has been mainly applied for dedicated analyses, but the introduction of APCI or ESI in systematic toxicological screening may be expected in the near future.

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Accession: 010774248

Download citation: RISBibTeXText

PMID: 10572975

DOI: 10.1016/s0378-4347(98)00520-9

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