EurekaMag.com logo
+ Site Statistics
References:
53,869,633
Abstracts:
29,686,251
+ Search Articles
+ Subscribe to Site Feeds
EurekaMag Most Shared ContentMost Shared
EurekaMag PDF Full Text ContentPDF Full Text
+ PDF Full Text
Request PDF Full TextRequest PDF Full Text
+ Follow Us
Follow on FacebookFollow on Facebook
Follow on TwitterFollow on Twitter
Follow on LinkedInFollow on LinkedIn

+ Translate

Iron deficiency and cognitive achievement among school-aged children and adolescents in the United States



Iron deficiency and cognitive achievement among school-aged children and adolescents in the United States



Pediatrics 107(6): 1381-1386



Context. Iron deficiency anemia in infants can cause developmental problems. However, the relationship between iron status and cognitive achievement in older children is less clear. Objective. To investigate the relationship between iron deficiency and cognitive test scores among a nationally representative sample of school-aged children and adolescents. Design. The National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey III 1988-1994 provides cross-sectional data for children 6 to 16 years old and contains measures of iron status including transferrin saturation, free erythrocyte protoporphyrin, and serum ferritin. Children were considered iron-deficient if any 2 of these values were abnormal for age and gender, and standard hemoglobin values were used to detect anemia. Scores from standardized tests were compared for children with normal iron status, iron deficiency without anemia, and iron deficiency with anemia. Logistic regression was used to estimate the association of iron status and below average test scores, controlling for confounding factors. Results. Among the 5398 children in the sample, 3% were iron-deficient. The prevalence of iron deficiency was highest among adolescent girls (8.7%). Average math scores were lower for children with iron deficiency with and without anemia, compared with children with normal iron status (86.4 and 87.4 vs 93.7). By logistic regression, children with iron deficiency had greater than twice the risk of scoring below average in math than did children with normal iron status (odds ratio: 2.3; 95% confidence interval: 1.1-4.4). This elevated risk was present even for iron-deficient children without anemia (odds ratio: 2.4; 95% confidence interval: 1.1-5.2). Conclusions. We demonstrated lower standardized math scores among iron-deficient school-aged children and adolescents, including those with iron deficiency without anemia. Screening for iron deficiency without anemia may be warranted for children at risk.

(PDF emailed within 0-6 h: $19.90)

Accession: 010885127

Download citation: RISBibTeXText

PMID: 11389261

DOI: 10.1542/peds.107.6.1381



Related references

Dietary fat intake is associated with psychosocial and cognitive functioning of school-aged children in the United States. Journal of Nutrition 135(8): 1967-1973, 2005

Iron Deficiency among Overweight Children and Adolescents in the United States. FASEB Journal 18(4-5): Abst 359 10, 2004

The nutritional consequences of flavored-milk consumption by school-aged children and adolescents in the United States. Journal of the American Dietetic Association 102(6): 853-856, 2002

Elevated blood pressure and decreased cognitive function among school-age children and adolescents in the United States. Journal of Pediatrics 143(6): 720-724, 2003

Iron fortification of whole wheat flour reduces iron deficiency and iron deficiency anemia and increases body iron stores in Indian school-aged children. Journal of Nutrition 142(11): 1997-2003, 2013

Iron deficiency and educational achievement in thai school children. Journal of Nutritional Science & Vitaminology (SPEC SUPPL): 74-77, 1988

School achievement of children by demographic and socioeconomic factors, United States. Vital and Health Statistics. Series 11, Data From the National Health Survey: 1-95, 1976

Association of serum cholesterol and history of school suspension among school-age children and adolescents in the United States. American Journal of Epidemiology 161(7): 691-699, 2005

A Normative Sample Of Intelligence And Achievement Of Negro Elementary School Children In The Southeastern United States. Monographs of the Society for Research in Child Development 28: 1-112, 1963

Vitamin D, not iron, is the main nutrient de´Čüciency in pre-school and school-aged children in Mexico City: a cross-sectional study. Nutricion Hospitalaria 33(4): 372-372, 2016

Emergency department visits for injury in school-aged children in the United States: a comparison of nonfatal injuries occurring within and outside of the school environment. Academic Emergency Medicine 13(5): 567-570, 2006

Is there a relationship between physical fitness and academic achievement? Positive results from public school children in the northeastern United States. Journal of School Health 79(1): 30-37, 2009

Iron deficiency and anemia in school children and adolescents. Journal of the Formosan Medical Association 95(9): 692-698, 1996

Policy statement on iron deficiency in pre-school-aged children. Journal of Paediatrics and Child Health 43(7-8): 513-521, 2007