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Iron status at 12 months of age -- effects of body size, growth and diet in a population with high birth weight



Iron status at 12 months of age -- effects of body size, growth and diet in a population with high birth weight



European Journal of Clinical Nutrition 57(4): 505-513



Objective: To investigate effects of growth and food intake in infancy on iron status at the age of 12 months in a population with high birth weight and high frequency of breast-feeding. Design: In a longitudinal observational study infants' consumption and growth were recorded. Weighed 2 day food records at the ages of 6, 9 and 12 months were used to analyse food and nutrient intake. Setting: Healthy-born participants were recruited from four maternity wards. Blood samples and growth data were collected from healthcare centres and food consumption data at home. Subjects: Newborn infants (n=180) were selected randomly according to the mother's domicile and 77% (n=138) participated, of them, 83% (n=114), or 63% of original sample, came in for blood sampling. Results: Every fifth child was iron-deficient (serum ferritin <12 mug/l and mean corpuscular volume <74 fl) and 2.7% were also anaemic (Hb<105 g/l). Higher weight gain from 0 to 12 months was seen in infants who were iron-deficient at 12 months (6.7+-0.9 kg) than in non-iron-deficient infants (6.2+-0.9 kg) (P=0.050). Serum transferrin receptors at 12 months were positively associated with length gain from 0 to 12 months (adjusted r2=0.14; P=0.045) and mean corpuscular volume negatively to ponderal index at birth (adjusted r2=0.14; P=0.019) and 12 months (adjusted r2=0.17; P=0.006). Iron-deficient infants had shorter breast-feeding duration (5.3+-2.2 months) than non-iron-deficient (7.9+-3.2 months; P=0.001). Iron status indices were negatively associated with cow's milk consumption at 9-12 months, significant above 460 g/day, but were positively associated with iron-fortified breakfast cereals, fish and meat consumption. Conclusions: In a population of high birth weight, iron deficiency at 12 months is associated with faster growth and shorter breast-feeding duration from 0 to 12 months of age. The results suggest that a diet of 9-12-month-olds should avoid cow's milk above 500 g/day and include fish, meat and iron-fortified breakfast cereals to improve iron status.

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Accession: 010885360

Download citation: RISBibTeXText

PMID: 12700611

DOI: 10.1038/sj.ejcn.1601594



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