+ Site Statistics
+ Search Articles
+ Subscribe to Site Feeds
EurekaMag Most Shared ContentMost Shared
EurekaMag PDF Full Text ContentPDF Full Text
+ PDF Full Text
Request PDF Full TextRequest PDF Full Text
+ Follow Us
Follow on FacebookFollow on Facebook
Follow on TwitterFollow on Twitter
Follow on LinkedInFollow on LinkedIn

+ Translate

Iron status in Danish men 1984-94: a cohort comparison of changes in iron stores and the prevalence of iron deficiency and iron overload

Iron status in Danish men 1984-94: a cohort comparison of changes in iron stores and the prevalence of iron deficiency and iron overload

European Journal of Haematology 68(6): 332-340

Background and objectives: From 1954 to 1987, flour in Denmark was fortified with 30 mg carbonyl iron per kg. This mandatory fortification was abolished in 1987. The aim of this study was to compare iron status in Danish men before and after abolition of iron fortification. Methods: Iron status (serum ferritin, haemoglobin), was assessed in population surveys in Copenhagen County during 1983-84 comprising 1324 Caucasian men (1024 non-blood-donors, 300 blood donors) and in 1993-94 comprising 1288 Caucasian men (1103 non-blood-donors, 185 donors), equally distributed in age cohorts of 40, 50, 60 and 70 yr. Results: In the 1984 survey median serum ferritin values in the four age cohorts in non-blood-donors were 136, 141, 133 and 111 mug/L, and in the 1994 survey 177, 173, 186 and 148 mug L-1, respectively. The difference was significant in all age groups (P < 0.001). There was no significant difference between the two surveys concerning the prevalence of small iron stores (ferritin 16-32 mug L-1), depleted iron stores (ferritin < 16 mug L-1) or iron-deficiency anaemia (ferritin < 13 mug L-1 and Hb < 5th percentile for iron-replete men). However, from 1984 to 1994, the prevalence of iron overload (ferritin > 300 mug L-1) increased from 11.3% to 18.9% (P < 0.0001). During the study period there was an increase in body mass index (P < 0.0001), alcohol consumption (P < 0.03) and use of non-steroid anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAID) (P < 0.0001), and decrease in the use of vitamin-mineral supplements (P < 0.04) and in the prevalence of tobacco smoking (P < 0.0001). In contrast, median ferritin in blood donors showed a significant fall from 1984 to 1994 (103 vs. 74 mug L-1, P < 0.02). Conclusion: Abolition of iron fortification reduced the iron content of the Danish diet by an average of 0.24 mg MJ-1, and the median dietary iron intake in men from 17 to 12 mg d-1. From 1984 to 1994, body iron stores and the prevalence of iron overload in Danish men increased significantly, despite the abolition of food iron fortification. The reason appears to be changes in dietary habits, with a lower consumption of dairy products and eggs, which inhibit iron absorption, and a higher consumption of alcohol, meat, and poultry, containing haem iron and enhancing iron absorption. The high prevalence of iron overload in men may constitute a health risk.

(PDF emailed within 0-6 h: $19.90)

Accession: 010885363

Download citation: RISBibTeXText

PMID: 12225390

DOI: 10.1034/j.1600-0609.2002.01668.x

Related references

Iron status in Danish women, 1984-1994: a cohort comparison of changes in iron stores and the prevalence of iron deficiency and iron overload. European Journal of Haematology 71(1): 51-61, 2003

Iron status in Danes 1994. II: Prevalence of iron deficiency and iron overload in 1319 Danish women aged 40-70 years. Influence of blood donation, alcohol intake and iron supplementation. Annals of Hematology 79(11): 612-621, 2000

Iron status in Danes updated 1994. I: prevalence of iron deficiency and iron overload in 1332 men aged 40-70 years. Influence Of blood donation, alcohol intake, and iron supplementation. Annals of Hematology 78(9): 393-400, 1999

Iron status of the elderly Framingham Heart Study cohort An iron-replete population with a high prevalence of elevated iron stores. FASEB Journal 12(5): A846, March 20, 1998

Iron status of the Taiwanese elderly: the prevalence of iron deficiency and elevated iron stores. Asia Pacific Journal of Clinical Nutrition 14(3): 278-284, 2005

Iron status of the free-living, elderly Framingham Heart Study cohort: an iron-replete population with a high prevalence of elevated iron stores. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 73(3): 638-646, 2001

Plasma ferritin and soluble transferrin receptor concentrations and body iron stores identify similar risk factors for iron deficiency but result in different estimates of the national prevalence of iron deficiency and iron-deficiency anemia among women and children in Cameroon. Journal of Nutrition 143(3): 369-377, 2013

Prevalence of iron deficiency states and risk of haemoconcentration during pregnancy according to initial iron stores and iron supplementation. Public Health Nutrition 16(8): 1371-1378, 2014

Iron fortification of whole wheat flour reduces iron deficiency and iron deficiency anemia and increases body iron stores in Indian school-aged children. Journal of Nutrition 142(11): 1997-2003, 2013

Increased intestinal iron absorption in rats with normal hepatic iron stores. Kinetic aspects of the adaptative response to parenteral iron repletion in dietary iron deficiency. Biochimica et Biophysica Acta 1033(3): 277-281, 1990

The effect of alcohol consumption on the prevalence of iron overload, iron deficiency, and iron deficiency anemia. Gastroenterology 126(5): 1293-1301, 2004

A comparison of the plasma iron, iron-binding capacity, sternal marrow iron and other methods in the clinical evaluation of iron, stores. Annals of Internal Medicine 48(1): 60-82, 1958

Salivary iron status in children with iron deficiency and iron overload. Journal of Tropical Pediatrics 38(2): 64-67, 1992

Body iron stores and iron restoration rate in Japanese patients with chronic hepatitis C as measured during therapeutic iron removal revealed neither increased body iron stores nor effects of C282Y and H63D mutations on iron indices. Nagoya Journal of Medical Science 64(1-2): 51-57, 2001

Serum ferritin iron in iron overload and liver damage: correlation to body iron stores and diagnostic relevance. Journal of Laboratory and Clinical Medicine 135(5): 413-418, 2000